What are the ingredients in Molly MDMA

Drug lexicon

Ecstasy

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substance

On the illegal market, ecstasy is offered in pill form or in capsules. The best-known substance known as ecstasy is MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine). In analyzes of ecstasy, other chemically related substances were found such as MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), MDE or MDEA (3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) or MBDB (3,4-methylenedioxy-alpha-ethyl-N-methylphenethylamine). Other psychoactive substances such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, caffeine, ephedrine or ketamine were also identified.

History

MDMA is often classified as a designer drug, although it was originally patented by the German company Merck as early as 1912. Merck was looking for an alternative production route for the hemostatic substance hydrastinine in order to circumvent the patent that already existed for it. The "Imperial Patent Office" at that time did not patent substances, only their manufacturing processes. However, MDMA was not the final patented substance, but merely a by-product in the manufacture of hydrastinine.

The first systematic experiments on humans can be attributed to the American chemist Alexander Shulgin, who, together with his colleague David Nichols, first described the psychoactive effects of MDMA in a specialist article in 1978.

effect

Like every psychotropic drug, ecstasy also has certain typical effects, but it is very often forgotten that many factors are involved in the development of the effects. In addition to the composition the pill and the dosage of the active ingredients, but also have the the atmosphere the immediate area and the Consumers themselves - their current mood and expectations - influence the effect.

Therefore it can happen that some people want to dance under the influence of ecstasy and become more communicative, while others feel more heavy and lazy. But even with one and the same person, the effects can be very different. Even with the same pill composition, two pills will never lead to an absolutely identical high.

The consumers cite the following as pleasantly experienced effects:

  • the feeling of happiness and love
  • the feeling of relaxation
  • the feeling of closeness to other people
  • Ecstasy also has the stimulating effects of the original substance amphetamine: the users feel awake and activated.
  • increased body awareness
  • optical changes in perception

However, ecstasy also produces acute effects that, depending on the dosage and composition of the pill, can be unpleasant or even dangerous. To the frequent, experienced as unpleasant effects include: dizziness, nausea, sweats, dilated pupils, jaw grinding, and dry mouth.

Some of the more dangerous effects include:

  • Racing heart
  • Body temperature rise and dehydration
  • massive anxiety (horror trip)
  • depression
  • psychotic disorders
  • Kidney and liver failure
  • Circulatory collapse

Deaths

There can also be deaths associated with the use of ecstasy. Most of the registered deaths that can be attributed solely to ecstasy use, however, are predominantly the result of overheating and the subsequent kidney or liver failure. Particularly under unfavorable conditions, for example in poorly air-conditioned and hot rooms as well as under heavy physical strain, as is the case with persistent dancing, the risk of a life-threatening increase in body temperature increases.

There is also an incalculable risk associated with mixed consumption. Most of the recorded deaths related to ecstasy are due to this. As a rule, ecstasy is not consumed alone, but often together with alcohol and other drugs.

In some cases, fatal water poisoning has also occurred after using ecstasy. The people died because they drank too much water to avoid overheating. Water poisoning causes blood to be so diluted that edema forms in the brain, which can be fatal.

Long-term damage

A large number of studies have been and are being carried out on the question of whether ecstasy is neurotoxic, i.e. causes brain damage. Some studies in the past have also come to contradicting results. Meta-analyzes and reviews, in which many individual studies are summarized, however, after reviewing methodologically reliable studies, consistently come to the conclusion that ecstasy has a selectively neurotoxic effect on nerve cells that have serotonin as a messenger substance. According to the current state of research, not all of the nerve cells are destroyed, but the contact points (synapses) between the nerve cells are damaged, so that only limited or no communication takes place between the nerve cells.

According to the results of the study, the extent of the neurotoxic potential should be rated as low, but cognitive deficits can be found in consumers compared to abstinent people, especially in the area of ​​learning. Even if the learning deficits are only small, they can have an unfavorable effect on school or professional development.

No reliable statements can currently be made about the durability of the damage acquired. On the one hand, there are indications from animal experiments that suggest that the damage is reversible. On the other hand, studies with former ecstasy users indicate that cognitive deficits can still be found even after long periods of abstinence. In general, therefore, it cannot be ruled out that there may be long-term losses in the ability to learn.

Dependency development

Continuous use of ecstasy runs the risk of developing psychological dependence. In some cases, this leads to high increases in dose, since tolerance to the entactogenic effect quickly develops, i. H. more and more ecstasy has to be consumed to achieve the same stimulant effect. Experts assume that there is a comparatively low potential for dependence, but very often there is mixed consumption with other psychoactive substances such as amphetamines or cannabis, which can also be addictive.


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