What do haploid and diploid mean?

What does haploid mean?


The Genome of eukaryotes, like us humans, is in Chromosomes organized. A chromosome is made up of DNA and is located in the cell nucleus. On it are Genescoding for proteins. We humans have a total of 46 chromosomes, each of which is in pairs. These couples are also known as homologous chromosomesbecause both chromosomes in the pair contain the same genes in the same order. However, the genes are not completely the same, on the homologous chromosomes there are different or sometimes the same Alleles . An allele is a characteristic expression. For example, the gene for the flower color is located in the same place on the two homologous chromosomes in a pea plant. However, the allele for white flowers can be found on one chromosome and the allele for purple flowers on the other chromosome.

This organization with two homologous chromosomes is also called one diploid set of chromosomes. If you look at only one chromosome from each pair, you look at that haploid chromosome set. In addition, not all cells are diploid. The germ cells, which after the meiosis arise are for example only haploid. When a haploid egg cell is fertilized with a haploid sperm, a diploid fertilized egg cell (zygote) is formed.