What is Macrooh in Islam
The animated short film provides information about the development of the conceptual history and the different levels of meaning of the terms "haram" and "halal".
Full text alternative
[The film fades in, one hand is still aiming the camera, then you can see Youtuber Marie Meimberg. She looks straight into the camera and waves in greeting as she begins to speak. It is located in a large, office-like room that can only be seen out of focus in the background. Only the head of Marie can be seen. She has long, dark hair down, a black scarf and a piercing in her lower lip. She stands so close in front of the camera that sometimes when she moves her head while speaking, part of her face is no longer in the picture.]
Marie: Hi! To be honest, I'm a little unhappy because of the last regular's table. Well, not so much because I didn't like the regulars 'table as such, or did not find the guests good, on the contrary, but rather because I believe that the topic is so complex and so big that you can find it with a regulars' table alone just doesn't do it justice. The only thing that happens when you try to do this is that you fail. And I think (laughs) I failed terribly with it. But I also believe that when you do something like that, that is, you face a task like this and then you realize: Shit, it didn't work that well, because it was just too big and too many demands and just not representable, then you have about two options how to deal with it.
[Marie underlines this sentence and lifts her hand into the picture with two fingers.]
Marie: Either you let yourself be put off by it ... I'll show you what I mean by that.
[Marie takes the camera in her hand while she speaks, for a short time only her hand is in the picture, then she herself is out of focus. Finally she puts the camera on a table, a coiled cable can be seen, a white wall in the background.]
Marie: By the way, this is the new office! I think you haven't seen that yet. So this is my whiteboard in the office.
[Now the surface of a whiteboard and Marie's hand are in the picture, which now begins to paint on it. She draws a stick figure, writes the word "Islam" to the right of it and draws horizontal lines below and above it that are closely spaced.]
Marie: What I mean by that is, you either have the choice to say: Ok, it's so complex, it's so big, I'd rather let it be complete.
[To the left of the figure, Marie draws a speech bubble with the words "No, better not!" The words are then wiped away and instead "Nonsense!" To write into something.]
Marie: Or you go there and say: Ok - similar to a huge forest - I will now take care of a tree, so basically a shift and work my way step by step.
[The stick figure is painted a stick arm that points to one of the horizontal lines, next to which the words "1 layer" and a tree are drawn. An arrow points to the tree, more trees are painted for it.]
Marie: To be honest, I don't know exactly how to deal with all the shifts, so I don't have a solution for all shifts and no ideas. I think there can definitely be another get-together. But I think the most important thing is to start at some point. Then you can work your way up tree by tree and layer by layer.
[Marie picks up the camera again and points it at her.]
Marie: So ... and the layer of the complex topic of Islam that I want to deal with today is education. I already mentioned that at the regulars' table, I believe that it is much easier to be afraid of something if you are not familiar with it. I also believe that it happens a lot faster that you just let someone else's opinion ... yes, not talk to you, but that you simply take it on without being asked if you don't have a basis on which to build one can form his own opinion. That's why, as I told you at the regulars' table, I oversaw this project for bpb behind the camera as a consultant, because I thought it was very important. And now I have decided that it would be really nice to work on this topic and this project not only behind the camera, but also in front of the camera. And I do that today! A topic is dealt with with very, very beautiful wiped illustrations that also played a role in the last regulars' table. Funnily enough, actually, because it didn't matter (laughs) for the very first time.
[Marie takes the camera again, points it in the room, the picture shakes. Then the whiteboard is in the picture again. Marie draws a bottle with a cork that says "Pesto" and two shot glasses. In addition, she paints the head of a stick figure with the two speech bubbles "No thanks!" and "I don't drink alcohol".]
Marie: Because, you know: pesto schnapps is actually an essential part of the regulars' table. And at the last regular's table we didn't drink a single pesto schnapps. That is because Rayk said he would rather not drink so much alcohol this time because he had an experience there, on a panel discussion, but also because Kübra does not drink alcohol.
[Marie's hand wipes the picture away. A new picture is displayed showing different stick figure heads side by side, over which Marie a large speech bubble with the words "Neither do we!" draws.]
Marie: She is by no means alone and the only Muslim woman I know who doesn't drink alcohol. Why? Because alcohol is considered haram.
[The picture is wiped away again and the bottle with the inscription "Pesto" is redrawn. In addition, Marie writes a mathematical equal sign and "haram". Then she points the camera at herself again.]
Marie: I'm sure each and every one of you has heard that before, but haram is still very, very much more than just not drinking alcohol. So the question is what exactly does that mean? And what is allowed in return, i.e. halal?
[Now the explanatory film begins. One hand draws the two words "halal" and "haram" in green letters from above onto a white surface. Underneath, the hand then places the two terms in different languages and scripts. These are then wiped away again and a green check mark placed under the word "halal" and a black negative cross under the word "haram".]
Narrator: Nowadays the terms halal and haram are often used to speak generally about what is allowed and forbidden in the sense of Islam.
[The picture elements are wiped away. A drawing of a group of young people is then placed on the left side of the surface and two word bubbles with the terms "haram" and "halal" are placed in the top right of the picture. A direction sign and a compass are placed above the group, below the terms a woman in a headscarf, who spreads her arms like a pair of scales, as if she were balancing the two terms. There is also a thumbs up symbol under "halal" and a thumbs down symbol under "haram".]
Narrator: They are mainly used by young Muslims, but have also become generally established in the language of young people. The terms are so popular because they promise clear orientations for one's own behavior - in the sense of clear norms.
[All elements of the picture, except that of the group of young people, are wiped out. A young woman with a headscarf from the group is given a sign with the word "halal" in her hand, a young man is given an arm with which he points to the right side of the picture. The drawing of a second group of young people is then placed there, who look negatively at the first group. A speech bubble with the word "haram" is added to the young man pointing at her.]
Speaker: They can create an identity, but are also used to present one's own position and behavior as permissible and correct, or other opinions as forbidden or incorrect.
[All picture elements are wiped away by hand. A drawing of two people in discussion is placed in the picture - a man with glasses and a beard, in front of him a stack of books and a woman in a headscarf with two scrolls and a quill. A large speech bubble is placed over their heads in which "haram vs. halal" stands like a headline, under which the stacks of books with the titles "Tafsir", "Ethics" and "Islamic Law" are then placed. The stack of "ethics" books is then covered with a picture of a Koran and the words "hurum" and "halala" are placed under the speech bubble on the left and right of the two discussants.]
Speaker: In the interpretations of the Koran, Halal and Haram are opposites. In the Quran itself, however, they and their related phrases have several meanings.
[The area is wiped clean and the drawing of the Ka'ba in Mecca is placed on the left of the picture and the words "haram" above and below "holy / sacral". The words "versus" and "halal" are then placed at the same height as "haram", and lower below the latter "worldly / profane". A globe is then added underneath.]
Narrator: For example, the area around the Ka'ba in Mecca is called haram. This means that one may only enter the area of the Ka'ba in a certain state and means something like "holy" or "sacred". In contrast to this, halal is translated as "worldly" or "profane".
[Next to the Ka'ba the drawing of a group consisting of man, woman and child in pilgrim robes is placed and next to the Ka'ba the word "hurum" is placed. The drawing is then turned over by hand and placed next to the globe. You can now see a man, a woman and a child in everyday clothes. The word "pilgrimage" is placed on the lower right next to the Ka'ba and next to it is a green curved arrow that points towards the globe and is overwritten with the word "leave". The word "halala" is added to the right of the globe.]
Speaker: For example, the state of Muslims during the pilgrimage is referred to as hurum - and leaving this state is denoted by the verb halala. Both hurum and halala are related words of haram and halal.
[All elements are wiped away. The term "haram" is inserted and below it a thumbs down symbol, a cross and a stop sign. Then the area is wiped clean again and the words "haram" and "forbidden" are placed on the top left. The following pictures are placed underneath: a hemp leaf and a burning joint, a wine bottle with a glass and a young man in front of a slot machine.]
Narrator: The most common meaning of "haram" in the sense of a religious regulation is "unlawful" or "forbidden".
[The words "halal" and "permitted" are then placed on the right side of the picture and the following pictures underneath: two children playing football, a juice bottle and an elderly man watering and whistling flowers.]
Narrator: In contrast, the word "halal" stands for "lawful" or "permitted, permissible". This distinction can relate to objects, actions or even people.
[Everything is wiped away, a picture of the Koran is placed in the middle and next to it the word bubbles "Commandments" and "Prohibitions", as well as a question mark.]
Narrator: The Koran does not contain many regulations and rules that can be called direct legal norms.
[Again the surface is wiped clean and the following pictures are placed in it: Below left the picture of two scholars with rolls of paper - one in a turban and both in robes - and on the right a picture of two women and a man - one in costume, the other in trousers and a headscarf and he's in a suit. The word "Gebote" and a like thumb are then placed on the left over the first two scholars, on the right over the group the word "Verbote" and a dislike thumb. Finally, there is a paragraph sign on the command side and a picture of a group of people of different ages in the middle.]
Narrator: That is why Islamic lawyers have tried to apply the commandments and prohibitions mentioned in the Koran to the lives of Muslims through interpretation. It was discussed whether these apply like laws or should be seen more as moral guidelines.
[Various elements are wiped out of the picture, the two groups of scholars from the initial picture remain. A large square speech bubble is placed between them, pointing to both groups as speakers. A vertical scale is drawn in it, at the top of which it says "forbidden" and at the bottom "allowed". In between the following words are written in descending order: "haram", "makruh", "mandub / mustahabb / sunna", "fard" and next to it "wajib", as well as "mubah" and "halal".]
Narrator: As a result of these debates, Islamic jurists developed over time a scale to classify human actions in terms of religious regulations and to judge them. This was done in accordance with the Islamic principle of belief that man must answer to God for his deeds.
[All pictures are wiped away and on the left the picture of a scholar with a raised index finger and rolls of paper is placed under his arm and a speech bubble with the words "fard / wajib" and "duty" next to him. In addition, the following images are placed: a young man with a baseball cap rolling out a prayer rug, a praying woman with a headscarf and a man and a woman at a table eating and over which a drawing of the moon and stars in front of a black sky symbolizing night , is placed.]
Speaker: In the sense of this scale, so-called prescribed actions, which are called farh or wahib, are religious obligations that Muslims must adhere to - such as daily prayer or fasting during Ramadan.
[The figure of a man in a suit is placed on the screen, which has been wiped clean again. He raised one hand to his mouth as he spoke. The speech bubble with the words "mandub / mustahabb / sunna" and "recommended" is placed above him. In addition, the following pictures are placed in it: a group of young people saying "Merhaba!", "Hello!", "Hello!" and "Salam aalaikum!" say and the picture of a young woman pushing an old man in a wheelchair.]
Narrator: Actions that are recommended from the perspective of these religious rules are referred to as mandub, mustahabb, or sometimes sunna. It is recommended, for example, to say hello or to help people.
[A new picture begins: a man dressed in a robe with a roll of paper in his hand is placed on the left and above the speech bubble with the words "makruh" and "undesirable". There is also the image of a woman at a sink talking on the phone while the water overflows from the basin and that of a woman uttering insults in a thought bubble.]
Narrator: Actions that are considered undesirable or advised against are called makrūh by Islamic scholars.
[The picture of a woman with a headscarf and books under her arm is placed on the surface, which has been wiped clean again. She is smiling and has raised her arm while she is speaking. In her speech bubble it says "haram". The following pictures are placed to the right of her on the picture surface: a roasted pig on a plate, a wine bottle with a glass, a joint and a hemp leaf and a young man in front of a slot machine.]
Narrator: Actions that are forbidden from the point of view of religious regulations are called haram.
[In a new picture, the picture of a woman in costume, who has raised her hands to explain and the speech bubble "halal" is placed. In addition, there are the pictures of a writing girl, a whistling man watering flowers and two children playing football.]
Narrator: According to this classification of Islamic jurists, there are actions that are considered permissible. They are called mubah or halal.
[All picture elements are wiped away. The drawing of a tablet is placed on the white surface. The hand presses the button that has been drawn and the Youtuber Marie can be seen in a close-up again. The picture is zoomed in until it fills the entire area.]
Marie: I personally find the idea, to be honest, a bit strange, to act like that kind of recommendation-action thing that I didn't come up with myself. Some of you may know that, I am not baptized and I am not a believer either, but of course I still designed a kind of picture for myself, of what I find right for myself, what is clear to me, what is not at all clear to me .
[The camera is directed towards the whiteboard again. Marie paints a stick figure and next to it a framed picture depicting this stick figure. Then the stick figure is painted arms in which it holds a brush and a color palette.]
Marie: But that is a picture that I designed or painted myself, so I am the painter of this picture myself. I painted a kind of Ideal Marie portrait myself and hung it on the wall.
[The picture shows Marie again.]
Marie: I basically act according to this image, partly I think because I couldn't help it, because that, so to speak ... this idea, this image is a very large part of myself.But sometimes I also believe that I act accordingly because I just feel it's right.
[The camera goes back to the whiteboard. Marie draws a bed and above it a framed picture with the face of a stick figure. Standing next to the bed and pointing to the picture, she then draws an unhappy-looking figure with a thought bubble that says: "That / I am not like that!". Furthermore, the stick figure's mouth is wiped away and a smiling mouth is painted. The thought bubble is also wiped away and replaced by a speech bubble that says: "No matter! Then stop new!"].]
Marie: And yet there are sometimes moments when you wake up one morning and realize: I had a picture of myself and I thought I was one way or another, and then you have to realize that either you are no longer like that, or that you are that doesn't want to accept anymore.
[A new picture is being painted: a stick figure with a brush and color palette next to a framed picture of himself.]
Marie: Then I can go there and just paint a kind of new picture of myself and my "Oh-it-would-be-nice-to-be-a-Marie".
[The picture is wiped away again and a new stick figure is painted with the speech bubble next to it: "But how is that in Islam?" Marie then picks up the camera again and straightens it so that it can be seen in a close-up again.]
Marie: But how is it in Islam? Do you have to imagine it in such a way that everyone has to hang up a uniform picture of themselves? Can you help shape that? What if the picture doesn't feel right anymore? And who decides what the consequences will be if you don't stick to the picture that is hanging there?
[The film with Marie is zoomed out, we see it briefly in the frame of the drawn tablet, then it is faded out and the tablet is removed from the screen. Now two stacks of books are placed in the picture - the one on the left reads "haram", the one on the right "makruh". Two green arrows pointing in the middle are placed between the two and a lit cigarette is placed between them.]
Speaker: The classification of actions can differ from law school to law school. For example, smoking is viewed by some as "haram", "prohibited", and by others as "makruh", "undesirable".
[The picture is wiped clean and the hand puts the following pictures one after the other: A scholar with a warning finger raised and rolls of paper under his arm with the speech bubble: "No bid in need", next to it a figure in a bed under a blanket sweating over his head a clinical thermometer is drawn. There is a little table with food next to the bed. At the top right there is a picture of a pregnant woman biting into an apple and next to it the picture of a man who looks thoughtful and a thought bubble in which he can be seen in pilgrim garb.]
Speaker: There are also special regulations for exceptional situations. For example, fasting is not compulsory if you are sick or would be harmed for health reasons. It is also not considered compulsory to go on a pilgrimage if it would threaten the family's needs.
[All picture elements are wiped away and the following word bubbles are now placed next to each other in a line on the white surface: "forbidden", "allowed", "recommended" and "undesirable". Two stacks of books with the titles "makruh" and "halal" are placed underneath and on the left the scholar with the raised index finger is added and on the right another scholar with a roll of paper under his arm.]
Speaker: Whether something is clearly forbidden, allowed, recommended or undesirable is not only discussed differently in the various Islamic schools of law and among Islamic lawyers and theologians.
[The picture surface is wiped clean and an Arabic calligraphy of the word "Allah" is placed in a green circle in the center.]
Narrator: According to the scholars, God is the ultimate authority in deciding what consequences arise from human actions.
[The calligraphy is removed and the drawing of two scholars (a man and a woman) discussing is placed in the picture at the bottom right. Next to them is the figure of the woman wearing a headscarf, with her arms spread out like a pair of scales. On the left a thumbs down symbol and later the word "haram", on the right a thumbs up symbol and "halal" is placed.]
Narrator: The majority of Islamic scholars hold the view that believers are responsible for deciding whether or not to follow religious rules. But there are also countries that do not completely separate religious regulations and secular laws, and where religious regulations are considered part of national legislation.
[Now the following elements are added to the left of the picture: The figure of a judge in a gown and wig in front of a table and with the judge's gavel in his hand and a gray speech bubble in the crossed out images of a gun, a smashed window and a burning joint Hemp leaf can be seen.]
Speaker: As a result, for example, acts that are prohibited by religion are judged by judges in these countries.
[All elements of the picture are wiped away and a globe is pushed into the picture from below. Finally, the following images are placed around it: a group of men and children, some of whom are wearing turban, a punk-looking woman with a tablet, a woman in a headscarf with a book, who has raised her arm in an explanatory gesture, a girl in a headscarf , playing soccer, a young man in a baseball cap rolling out a prayer rug, a large group of different people, a young woman pushing an old man in a wheelchair, a teacher with a headscarf at a blackboard, the old man watering flowers and the two of them children playing soccer, a young woman jumping on a skateboard and an old woman with a walker.]
Speaker: All over the world, however, Muslims live in different societies and therefore understand, interpret and live religious regulations in different ways.
[All pictures are wiped away from the hand and the film with Marie fades in again.]
Marie: I understand it the same way as for all of us: In principle, we have the opportunity to design ourselves, to paint our own picture of ourselves, and we have a fairly wide range of colors, but also gray areas.
[Now the whiteboard is in the picture again, on which a number of different stick figures can be seen, over which is written: "We create ourselves!". Underneath it is "we", which is underlined twice, "bear the responsibility!" written.]
Marie: From now on we can decide never to smoke again, never again to drink alcohol, no more fat to eat, no more cheating, whatever ... from now on only to be good and to be there for people who support us need. But we have the opportunity to design it ourselves.
[Again, Marie is shown in a close-up.]
Marie: That means we can decide for ourselves how we behave. And we are also allowed to define ourselves through our behavior and actions. That is really great, that is a total freedom of opportunity. At the same time, it is also clear to me that we, and therefore only we, have to take responsibility for our behavior. In other words, if you behave like an asshole, then you have to take responsibility for your asshole behavior and you cannot blame anyone else for your asshole behavior, but you are responsible for it yourself. At the same time that also means, and that's actually quite nice, that if you behave totally awesome and are totally super great, that you can take responsibility for it, so to speak, and celebrate yourself a little for being awesome! So stay awesome and party yourself properly while I figure out how to do justice to the rest of the shifts.
[In the picture is the whiteboard. Marie writes on it: "Thanks to the Federal Agency for Civic Education and to the experts" and other things she also says below. Below she paints a stick figure with a speech bubble "Thank you".]
Marie: Thanks to the bpb for working with us on this video and thanks to the experts who answer questions on the topic - if you have any - in the comments. So don't be alarmed if people answer your questions who are not Marie Meimberg. There is also more information on the topic and the netiquette from the Federal Office in the video description and other videos are available here. Thank you for watching. See you soon! Bye!
[There is also a speech bubble in which "Tschöz" can be read, then the film is over.]
Editing: Pudelskern, Meimberg GmbH
Camera: Pudelskern, Meimberg GmbH
Cut: Pudelskern, Meimberg GmbH
Music: Poodle core
Sound: Poodle core
Speaker: Marie Meimberg
Scientific advice: Saliha Kubilay, Marie Meimberg, Prof. Dr. Armina Omerika
Playing time: 00:13:16
ed. from: Federal Agency for Civic Education
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