What is the melting point of xenon


Author: H. Lohninger

Atomic number54
CAS no.7440-63-3
Atomic weight131,293 amu
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
Melting point-111.9 ° C
boiling point-107.1 ° C
density5,887 g / cm3
Sources: Enghag 2004 , Wieser 2011
The noble gases were discovered in the air by J. Rayleigh in 1894 and isolated as "raw argon" together with W. Ramsay. Xenon was then first used in 1898 by W. Ramsay and M.W. Travers isolated from crude argon by fractional distillation.
Xenon is the rarest stable element on earth (see frequencies of chemical elements), it occurs mainly in the air; it is also occasionally found in the gases of certain mineral water springs.

Like the other noble gases, xenon is a colorless and odorless gas that is extremely inert chemically. It was even believed until 1962 that xenon and the other noble gases could not form chemical compounds. It is now known that the heavy noble gases (krypton, xenon and radon) can form isolable compounds with the electronegative elements. Together with fluorine, xenon and radon even form the thermodynamically stable compounds xenon difluoride, XeF2, and radon difluoride, RnF2.

In addition to xenon difluoride, xenon tetrafluoride, XeF4, Xenon hexafluoride, XeF6, Xenon trioxide, XeO3, Xenon tetraoxide, XeO4, and various oxyfluorides are represented. More than 100 xenon compounds are now known.

Xenon is obtained exclusively from the air. However, normal air liquefaction would deliver insufficient amounts of xenon that could not meet the needs of the incandescent lamp industry. That is why air cooled to the xenon dew point is washed in liquid air. Xenon and krypton dissolve in liquid air and are thereby enriched. Xenon is then extracted from the enriched solution by fractional distillation.
The main application of xenon is its use in incandescent lamps and in high pressure xenon lamps. In the case of incandescent lamps, the addition of a heavy inert gas results in better heat transport, so that the incandescent lamp bulb can be made smaller. On the other hand, the heavy xenon atoms counteract the evaporation of the tungsten wire, whereby the temperature of the filament can be increased and thus not only the light yield increases, but the emitted spectrum shifts more into the short-wave range and thus generates "whiter" light.

Xenon high-pressure lamps are used for particularly high light output. An arc is ignited in a xenon atmosphere of 100 bar, which emits a sun-like light (color temperature approx. 6000 K). Xenon high-pressure lamps are used, for example, as floodlights in stadiums, but also (with lower output) in car headlights.

Xenon is also used as an anesthetic in medicine, but is limited to certain cases due to its high price.