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Dairy farmers. Rethink. A report for the future-oriented dairy farmer. Prof. Dr. Gary Rogers on crossing Norwegians

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1 Successful crossbreeding for more profit October 2008 A report for the future-oriented dairy farmer Prof. Dr. Gary Rogers on crossing Norwegians Shannon Cartwright & Prof. Bonnie Mallard - immune situation NRF and HF Dr. Guro Sveberg - Heat detection and breed comparison Dairy farmers rethinking

2 Dear friends of crossbreeding! Crossbreeding has already spread and proven itself in the neighboring countries! The first Norwegian crossings in Germany show the expected willingness to perform. By crossing Norwegian Red Cattle, you will receive the highest level of fertility genes enhancement. This is shown by the international comparative studies. Every dairy farmer quickly recognizes the effect of crossbreeding on the fitness traits compared to the shift in the breeding value weighting in many pure dairy cattle breeds. In order to get the highest possible profit from milk production, it seems important to use the fastest possible solutions of genetics. Here the Norwegians, as the breed with the most intensive and longest breeding for health, offer themselves very well. Many scientific experts and internationally active veterinarians recognize the great economic advantages of crossing Norwegian red cattle. The immune study in Canada shows the possibility of using genetics to prepare our cows for environmental influences! Against the background of the political will to treat cattle manure through biogas plants and the associated increase in undesirable and dangerous spore-forming bacteria (botulism), we should first breed the dairy herds for resistance. & Table of Contents p. 3 Prof. Dr. Rogers on rotational crossbreeding Health status in Norway p.4-5 Immune study in Canada p.5 Crossbreed animals in Canada p.6 Non-return results from other countries Healthy, fertile and high-performing cows? !! P.7-8 Heat detection - race comparison HF and NRF, Dr. Guro Sveberg p.8 Breed diagram Norwegian red cattle p.9 Holstein for the insemination of F1 p.10 Norwegian red cattle bulls p.11 Special offer for Euro-Tier: Bride, order form p.12 Quotes, distribution of the total breeding value of the Norwegians Imprint and layout: Twoplus Germany Frohnerthof Oberkail Cover picture: Norway (NRFxHF from Germany) Photos: Elly Geverink, Shannon Cartwright, Geno, Twoplus Print: Druckerei Schaubs, Trier 2

3 Prof. Dr. Gary Rogers from the USA on rotational crossbreeding with dairy cows The geneticist Prof. Dr. Gary Rogers is a dairy researcher, teacher, editor-in-chief of a scientific journal on dairy dogs, oversees a major crossbreeding study of dairy cattle in the United States. 1. What is your opinion on the rotation concept? Crossbreeding will be most effective when rotation of the breeds is practiced. Many dairy farmers can benefit from using 3 or 4 breeds over time. The situation is different on every farm, and the economic situation and management will determine which type of rotary intersection is likely to be the most profitable. 2. Is there a risk of gene splitting? Most current research data in dairy cattle indicate that the combination of gene effects is of limited importance for most traits. Nevertheless, these gene combination effects are difficult to determine with a high degree of certainty. Even so, gene combination effects do not seem large enough to limit the value of crossbreeding in dairy cattle. 3. How can the slogan crossbreeding for more profit be proven in numbers? Crossbreed animals in dairy cattle, in which Holstein and Norwegian red cattle are involved (as well as some other breeds), produce very similar amounts of milk components as pure Holsteins. However, these crossbred animals are much better for reproductive and female fertility, calving traits, for most health traits, and for cow survival rates. As a consequence, crossbred cows are much more profitable than pure Holsteins in many dairy herds. Dark claws About% of the NRF population have dark claws. However, no relationship between hoof color and hoof disease has been established - with the exception of bleeding in the sole area and in the white line, which is likely due to the fact that it is more easily seen in white hoofs. An exception can be the trichophytic vaccination, which could still be used in some herds. 3

4 Current results from the immune study from Canada A comparison of the immune response of purebred Holsteins and crossbred animals Norwegian red cattle x Holstein (calves and first calf cows); Study by Prof. Bonnie Mallard and Shannon Cartwright (MSc Candidate), Guelph, Canada Shannon Cartwright taking a blood sample Summary: This study examines the immune response of purebred Holstein and Norwegian red cattle x Holstein crosses. Calves and first calf cows are tested for their defense reactions inside and outside the cell (explanations using the example of mastitis and paratuberculosis in the background information box). The results indicate that the crossbred animals have a better defense reaction on initial contact (inside and outside the cells). No difference could be found on renewed contact with the pathogen. As many people know, inbreeding in the Holstein population increases every year and with it problems such as decreased productivity, increased fertility problems and an increased risk of disease are associated. One of the possible solutions to potentially solving the problems associated with inbreeding is cross-breeding with more robust breeds. This study examines whether cross-breeding with a more robust breed like the Norwegian Red Cattle results in a breed that shows a better immune response, that is, the cattle have a better ability to defend themselves against pathogens and therefore a greater ability to defend themselves against Resist disease and infection. Therefore, the comprehensive aim of this study is to evaluate the antibody and cell-mediated immune responses in purebred Holstein and Norwegian Red Cattle x Holstein crossbred calves and heifers. Results of this study have so far shown that 2-6 month old crossbred calves show a noticeably greater initial IgG response and a noticeably greater IgM response than 2-6 month old purebred calves. IgM is one of the main antibodies 4 skin thickness measurement as an indicator of cell-mediated immunity in protection against bacteria that cause udder infections. Therefore, this result may indicate that the crossbred animals have better protection against bacteria that cause udder inflammation. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in cattle and the first response is the response the calf or cow will produce upon first contact with a pathogen. Therefore, this result could indicate that the crossbred animals have a better ability to defend themselves against a pathogen outside the cell on initial contact. Preliminary results in the first calf cows show that the crossbred animals had a markedly greater delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction compared to the purebred ones. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is used as an indicator of cell-mediated immune response; therefore this result suggests that the crossbred animals have a better cell-mediated immune response compared to the purebred animals. These same heifers were evaluated for the IgG secondary response and no significant difference was found between the purebred and the crossbreed animals. Secondary response is the response to a pathogen that the cow will produce on the second contact; therefore this result suggests that both (the purebred and the crossbreed heifers

5 have the same ability to defend themselves against pathogens outside the cell on second contact. The maximum milk yield was also evaluated for these heifers and no significant difference was seen between the purebred and the crossbred animals. However, there is still more analysis to be done on the first calving cows to determine whether the above results are convincing. We will also look at the first IgG response and the IgM response for the first calf cows in the near future. As this study is concerned with analyzing the antibody and cell-mediated immune responses of the two races, here is a brief explanation of these two types of immune responses. Antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses are the two arms of the immune system. Antibody-mediated immune responses are more involved in protecting against pathogens outside the cells, while cell-mediated immune responses are more involved in protecting against pathogens in the cells. However, one thing must be kept in mind: that these two arms of the immune system actually work together when responding to a pathogen. By this it is meant that the cells involved in the cell-mediated immune response, known as T cells, are involved in activating the antibody-producing cells, resulting in a large amount of antibodies that are secreted. Antibodies bind to the pathogens and remove them from the body. Cells that are involved in the antibody-mediated immune response, known as B cells, are also involved in activating T cells, causing the T cells to kill cells infected with a pathogen. To relate all of this to dairy diseases, consider mastitis and para-tuberculosis as examples. Udder inflammation is mainly caused by a pathogen that infects outside the cell and would therefore be cleared by an antibody-mediated immune response. However, T cells would be involved in order to use the B cells to activate more antibodies that can eliminate the pathogens. In some cases, the mastitis-causing pathogen can also enter the cells and in this case would be eliminated with a cell-mediated immune response. Paratuberculosis is caused by a pathogen that enters cells, so defense against it would be primarily cell-mediated. However, B cells could be involved, which activate T cells, which then kill the cells infected with paratuberculosis. Crossbreeding Study from Canada In the meantime we have the preliminary results of the Crossbreeding Study from Canada from Professor Ted Burnside. There, around 900 F1 crossbred heifers Norwegian red cattle x Holstein are compared with the Holsteins in the same herds on around 70 farms. So far 188 of the crossbreed heifers have calved, 100 of which have been in milk for over 90 days. It has been shown that the crossbreed heifers have a comparable milk production and slightly more milk components. This means that the result is a 305-day output of a little over 8400 kg for the crossbred animals - about 50 kg less than the Holsteins, but 9 kg more with 337 kg of fat and 9 kg more with 282 kg of protein than the thoroughbred Holstein Heifers. In addition, 96% of these crossbred heifers have already been inseminated and have an average resting time of 89.4 days, so that a shorter calving interval can be expected. 60 crossbred heifers have been classified. According to the Canadian system, 8 received a good plus, 45 received a good, 7 received a fair and none received a poor. The complete data up to the 3rd lactation are finally analyzed by Prof. Larry Schaeffer and colleagues, with the support of Geno Global and Semex Alliance. 5

6 healthy, fertile and high-performing cows ?! Non-return rates in other countries A study in Canada based on 1623 inseminations with NRF showed an improvement in the non-return rate of 7.2%: If the Holstein cows were inseminated with Holsteins, the Non-return rate at 58.5%, with an insemination with Norwegian red cattle at 65.7%. That means an increase of 12.5% ​​of the Holstein average non-return rate! In Iran, the non-return rates for cows were 8% higher when inseminated with NRF instead of Holstein. In the heifers it was 4.4%. The insemination index was 1.94 for inseminations with NRF compared to 3.32 for inseminations with Holstein bulls. In Norway itself, the national average non-return rates are 77% for heifers and between 68 and 69% for cows. This means that the Norwegians' non-return rates are among the best in the world. Sibylle Möcklinghoff-Wicke from the Milk Innovation Team, Hesse, kindly gave a lecture with the above title to accompany our information event in Alsfeld last year. We have put together a few slides of these that seem particularly interesting to us: Reality: Large animal populations (e.g. hygiene management!) High use of antibiotics! (Risk of resistance!) Regional concentrations (e.g. risk of epidemics!) Housing systems designed according to the principles of the greatest possible rationality Adaptability of the animals is exhausted to the limit It is not about well-being, but about performance-based functioning Decrease in fertility in the herds Pregnancy rate Cows Heifers% 66%% 65%% 70% Paul Fricke, 1998, Madison, USA Milk yield kg / cow Comparable cells worldwide !! Probability of occurrence of various diseases depending on the performance (%), 3rd lactation, 305 days mastitis claws ovarian cysts discharge Ret. Sec. Milchfieber Fleischer et al., 2001 Pathological-physiological background Calving period High milk production Fat cow syndrome Fatty liver limited feed intake NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE Undersupply sexual center Fat mobilization Rumen acidosis Milk fat high estrusiveness Ketosis, fatty liver Ovarian disorders, ovarian cysts defenses (udder muscles, uterine deficiencies) Udder, claws) Abomasum displacement Main problem of oestrus observation / detection Nationwide Approx. 1 billion euros Losses usually the most important limiting factor in fertility management% of all cows presented at the AI ​​are not in heat FOLLOW: Longer resting times An additional resting day costs up to 3.50 EUR Longer and more irregular Heat intervals of more than 1/3 of all farms inadequate Longer calving intervals in between Worse conception rates 6

7 Heat behavior in reality Heat only lasts about 6.6 hours (studies from Japan and France, 2004) 8-9 jumps Duration of a jump 4 sec. CONCLUSION: Seconds in 8 hours, every 3 weeks! the chance of observing a cow in heat is relatively low. Digestive disorders are fertility disorders. Primary (diet-related) Secondary change in feeding. Ketosis (acetonemia). Sudden change of feed. Abomasum shifting wrong feed together Overfeeding, acute mastitis, rumen acidosis, alkalosis, parasitosis, spoiled feed (fungi), infectious diseases, frozen feed (reduces appetite), contaminated feed Heat: 6-12 days longer Calving up to 1. KB: 8-12 days longer KB-Index: 0.4 higher ZKZ days longer Departure rate 6.2% higher Take-Home-Messages Extension of the lifespan is possible and urgently required ch health care must start earlier (ideal: strategic preventive concepts), especially to combat subclinical diseases more effectively Critical phase: 1-30 days pp main problem fertility Suggestions for improvement - heat detection - lameness diagnostics - metabolic diagnostics ovarian cysts New types of heat detection in cattle - differences between Holstein and Norwegian red cattle Dr. Guro Sveberg, DVM, GENO Norway Heat detection is a key factor in dairy cattle management, affecting the calving interval and milk production profit. In addition to the farmer's time investment and skills, the cow's ability to display heat behavior is of primary concern. Recent studies have reported short periods of oestrus and a lack of willingness to stand, which reveals the actual standing oestrus. From this follows the need for knowledge about other secondary oestrus symptoms and questions about the breed and the breeding program arise as factors influencing the severity of the oestrus symptoms. The nature of the ground affects the jumping behavior and unpaved areas are preferred to concrete or slatted floors. The number of cows in heat affects the intensity of the heat and especially the jumping activity. Other secondary oestrus symptoms can be used successfully to predict standing oestrus. The most distinctive oestrus symptoms to be examined are the resting of the chin on the rear part (chin resting) and the smelling or licking of other cows in the rear area (anogenital investigation).Aggressive behavior, such as pushing other cows, also becomes more pronounced in real heat. Heat behaviors, especially jumping on other cows, are good indicators of ovulation and the best time to inseminate the cow. A total of 20 Holstein and 20 Norwegian Red Cattle (NRF) cows were continuously video-monitored for 22 days in a paddock outside. The results showed that the NRF cows achieved a 7

8 had a longer heat duration, showed more heat behavior during the main heat and a more intensive jump behavior than the Holstein cows. The heat duration for the NRF cows was on average 11.28 hours (fluctuations from 4.85 to 20.75 hours) compared to 7.08 hours (fluctuations from 0.008 to 14.95 hours) for the Holstein cows similar milk yield. Our results were supported by a study by Dransfield-et-al, in which the Holstein cows showed an average heat duration of 7.1 +/- 5.4 hours in 2000 oestrus cycles. Data from 17 NRF cows in a free stall with slatted floors in Norway show an average heat duration of 10.51 hours (from 0.56 to 20.11) In Norwegian red cattle, fertility has been included in the breeding index since 1971. The average 60 day non-return rate in the population is 72.3%. Results from studies by Buckley-et-al in Ireland on 633 Holstein cows, 269 NRF-x-HF crossbreds and 293 NRF in 46 herds show 6-week pregnancy rates of 59%, 71% and 68%, respectively. It has been concluded that crossbreeding with NRF or Jersey is a real opportunity to improve herd profitability for Irish dairy farmers, particularly through improved reproductive capabilities. Knowing about secondary oestrus symptoms other than jumping is important in order to identify the cows that are not standing and to improve the success of inseminations. The expression of estrus is believed to be influenced by breed. Norwegian Red Cattle, for example, have a longer heat duration and show more secondary heat behavior than the Holsteins in our study. More studies are needed to confirm this, but the inclusion of health traits and fertility for more than 30 years has been shown to make a difference in these traits. The data is produced in collaboration with the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo and Ballydague Farm, Moorepark Research Station, Teagasc Ireland. Origin of the Norwegian red cattle breed This is how the Norwegians are made up of the various original Nordic breeds: More profit Crossbreeding with Norwegian red cattle gives you a better herd profitability! Reduced costs through: better fertility: 15% less mastitis: 25% less calf losses: 40% less premature cows: 50% udder quality and milk yield remain at the same level 8

9 Holstein bulls (recommendations from various providers for the insemination of F1 some Holstein bulls that were recommended to us for the insemination of cross-bred cows: milk fat% fat kg protein% protein kg RZM daughters / herds aaa RZS RZN RZR RZE milk type body feet and legs udder RZG Price () according to provider Bulle Herd book no. Provider Pedigree Trigema RUW MV: Andries (NLD),, na na, - Morrie ABS x VG85-Almond, x VG86-Raider,, na, 08 1.86 0, - Xacobeo Neu WWS ,, na, 7 * na, - Emtoro Masterrind del; MM: Genie; MMV: Leadman,, E: 71/59 na, - Garton ET Göpel Genetik,, na, - Chip Agroprim MM: Astoria; MMV: Storm on M : 94 /,, E: 76 /? Wildman-ET Alta,,, - Peinzer Boy All / Göpel Gen MMV: Ugela Bell,, / question The Twoplus rotation system provides for alternating insemination with Norwegian red cattle and Holstein. the F1 generation should be inseminated with Holstein again This Holstein bull should embody the strengths of the Holsteins (milk and udder) and not too heavy ones Make calves. Since some of our customers now have F1 cattle that can be inseminated, we asked various providers for their recommendations. So here V: Tribute (CAN), M: Magy 1 (NLD), Comestar L S Fam. Dutchboy, x VG87-Rudolph, BW Marshall x EX-94 Rudolph, Rolate Jody Fam. (USA) V: Emerson; VV: Bell Elton; VM: Martha; M: Windsor; MV: Man-V: Marshal ET (USA); M: Alexis (CZE); DS: Patron (USA) S: Champion; M; O Astor; MV: manat; (USA) V: Marshall M: L-M Wynona; DS: Winchester S: Jesther DS: Lucky Leo M: 43/39 E: 23/21 M: 115/68 E: 93/58 M: 95/73 E: 97/77 M: 255/179 M: 92/57 E: 74/45 M: 111/67 E: 75/50 request after 9

10 Overview of the linear description of the Norwegian Red Cattle bulls available in Germany 10 Letting milk run Temperament teat placement hi. Milking ability teat placement vo. Teat length udder balance central ligament rear udder height fore udder up. Udder total claw angulation hind legs behind hind legs side feet and legs pelvis inclination udder floor other disease. W. size mastitis resistance stillbirths Ø calving ease Ø fertility roughage intake meat milk (kg) fat (%) protein (%) protein (kg) total breeding value milk index red / black 50% polled dark claws bull aaa Raastad r aaa Haugseth s bride x - r Skjenaust 5794 xxr Øygarden 5848 xxr Hovde xxr Individual remaining portions of Lier, Rørmark, Berge, Hunnes, Ostad and Skjervheim available Robust Norwegian (excerpts from the article Flur u. Furche by Dierck Jensen) >> What will the dairy cow look like in 2025? Norwegian dairy farmers are currently concerned with this question. We have started a large survey among our members, explains Sverre Lang-Ree, employee of the cooperative breeding association of the Norwegian Red Cattle (GENO), in which we ask what characteristics a cow should show in 2025. When evaluating the answers, it turns out that Norwegian cattle farmers place great value on fertility and health in addition to milk yield. It would also be advantageous if cows emitted fewer greenhouse gases in 2025, could offer a higher feed yield and had better meat properties. Furthermore, according to the wish of Norwegian farmers, machine suitability is an important characteristic that is expected of the cow of the future. The latter is not surprising for Sverre Lang-Ree. I estimate that around half of the farms, around 7,500, will have a milking robot in ten years, according to the head of the breeding program at GENO. << >> GENO knows about the potential of their Norwegian red cattle. This is why the Norwegian Breeding Association has been on the offensive for some time now. He tries to gain a foothold abroad with his breeding material. The marketing name TWOPLUS is currently being used to woo farmers in Germany, Italy, Ireland, Iran, Canada and the USA. The key word is crossbreeding. In particular, we offer Holstein Frisian (HF) keepers the opportunity to specifically upgrade their herd with GENO breeding bulls, explains Egil Hersleth at the company headquarters in Hamar. <<

11 V: 6620 KREJSTAD M: Bride Index 20 25, - High milk and ingredients inheritance, slightly larger but firm udders, calm daughters who milk well GV: FAY38393 Maunulan Tunnus GM: SRB GV: 4843 KJÆR GM: 628 Special offer up to for Euro-Tier: 20% more discount in kind! statutory VAT *** Limited stock prices and promotions valid until the next offer The bulls Skjenaust, Haugseth and Øygarden are also offered in the TopQ bull catalog. Sales partner: Göpel Genetik, Herleshausen, Tel .: Agroprim, Luxembourg, Tel .: RUW, Münster, Tel .: Partly sperm in stock: RBW Herbertingen, Tel .: Besamungsverein Neustadt / Aisch, Tel .: Masterrind Verden, Tel .: First name Street, house number, post code, town, phone, fax station or owner's own inventory signature With the signature, the customer confirms the definitive order of the bulls listed above from the Twoplus offer. The semen is delivered directly to the company at the inseminators' own stock or to the insemination station responsible. TWOPLUS Germany Frohnerthof Oberkail Tel .: Jörg Dücker, Elbe-Weser Region Tel .: Andreas Schmitz, Greater Osnabrück Tel .: Berthold Magritz, Greater Emsland Tel .:

12 Whoever has more knowledge has a clear advantage! Anyone who demands performance must promote health! Distribution of the total gross value among the Norwegians: Prof Ted Burnside This is really balanced breeding! 22% Type 18% Other 15% Fertility Geno exports NRF semen to 24 countries! 24% milk production 22% mastitis resistance Dr. Guro Sveberg: NRF have a clearer and 50% longer heat! Interview with Mr. Elfenkämper, Hamfelder Hof, Demetermilchviehbetrieb and organic dairy with over 30 members 1. You were in Norway and visited NRF cows there. What impressed you the most? The homogeneity of the herd, the good hooves and even udders, the size of the animals and the very good condition without concentrated feed. 2. For what reason do you inseminate with Norwegian red cattle? Because we were dissatisfied with the Holsteins, especially with the claws. The Holsteins did not meet our expectations and showed a high degree of dispersion. Norwegian red cattle do very well in Demeter conditions. Don't ask the doctor, ask the one who was sick! 12th