Will bother MQM Karachi again

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March 20, 2015

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Owen Bennet-Jones, who worked as a BBC correspondent in Islamabad, among others, discusses the situation of the Awami National Party (ANP) in an article published in January 2015 in the German-language edition of the French monthly newspaper for international politics Le Monde Diplomatique mentions among other things that the Pakistani Taliban would "mercilessly hunt" their leaders:

“The ANP [Awami National Party] can be seen as an insignificant regional party, because it is only represented by two members in the National Assembly, the lower house of the Pakistani parliament. But one could also argue that it is one of the most important parties in the country. Unlike most of the others, it represents progressive and liberal positions and openly opposes the Taliban. While all Pakistani political forces have come to terms with the jihadists, the ANP is uncompromising on this point. However, it also pays a high price for this.

The Pakistani Taliban are mercilessly hunting down ANP leaders. After more and more cadres were killed by the Taliban, the ANP lost its support in the 2013 elections among voters - who no longer assumed that the party could achieve anything for them in Islamabad. Their lone opposition to the religious extremists was also undermined by fears by the central government that the ANP threatened Pakistan's territorial unity. In Islamabad, the jihadists are much more likely to face an existential threat to the country. ”(Le Monde Diplomatique, January 9, 2015)

In December 2014, BBC News mentioned that the Pashtun nationalist ANP had faced relentless attacks on high-ranking party cadres in recent years:

"The one party to attempt a political challenge to the Taliban in recent years, the Pashtun nationalist ANP, has faced relentless attacks on senior party cadres." (BBC News, December 19, 2014)

The German international broadcaster Deutsche Welle (DW) stated in an article from February 2015 that in 2012, the former provincial minister Bashir Ahmed Bilour was killed by the liberal ANP in a bomb attack by the Pakistani Taliban on a political rally in Peshawar. Bashir was not the only ANP leader targeted by the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP). The insurgents have killed dozens of party leaders over the past seven or eight years. It is no exaggeration to say that the ANP was the biggest victim of the Islamist uprising in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province:

"In 2012, the Pakistani Taliban bombed a political rally in the northwestern city of Peshawar, killing eight people, including the former provincial minister Bashir Ahmed Bilour of the liberal Awami National Party (ANP). [...] Bashir was not the only ANP leader targeted by the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP). The Pakistani branch of the militants has killed dozens of the party's leaders in the past seven or eight years. It won't be an exaggeration to say that the ANP has been the worst victim of Islamist insurgency in the restive Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, which has historically been the party's stronghold even long before Pakistan's independence from the British in 1947. ” (DW, February 4, 2015)

The Pakistani news channel Dunya News reported in January 2015 that the ANP and the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) had asked the government to carry out an army operation in Karachi. In addition, ANP members demonstrated in front of the Pakistani Senate against the targeted killings of party members. According to Shahi Syed (the chairman of the ANP in Sindh, note ACCORD), no less than 7,000 ANP party workers were killed in Karachi ("city of Quaid"):

"Awami National Party (ANP) and Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) on Monday has demanded off the government to conduct an army operation in Karachi while ANP members demonstrated a walk-out of the Senate in wake of target killings of party members. [...] He [ANP’s Shahi Syed] said that as many as 7,000 ANP workers have been killed in the city of Quaid. " (Dunya News, January 5, 2015)

An article published in the Pakistani daily Dawn in November 2014 mentions that the wave of targeted killings of ANP members never fully subsided after the military operation in Swat in 2009. During the past few months the situation has escalated to such an extent that it is alarming even for the standards of the ANP, which is confronted with constant attacks and killings of party leaders and activists. In Swat alone, according to the ANP chairman there, there have been 24 targeted killings of ANP party workers in the past three months. Since 2009, a total of 22 members of the Swat Amn Committee, which consists largely of ANP members, have been killed.

In Karachi, where the ANP has strong support, party cadres have been hit hard by attacks by the Tehrik-e-Taliban (TTP) Swat. Since the 2013 elections, when the TTP declared war on the ANP and urged voters to stay away from campaign events and the elections themselves, the ANP has lost candidates in targeted attacks in neighborhoods like Lyari and SITE.

According to Zia-ur-Rehman, a Karachi-based researcher, 70 ANP activists have been targeted in Karachi alone:

"The wave of targeted killings aimed at the ANP in the wake of the Swat operation in 2009 has never quite receded. Over the last few months, it has escalated to an extent that is alarming even by the ANP’s own grim standards of losing leaders and activists to incessant hits. In Swat alone, according to Swat ANP president Sher Shah Khan, there have been 24 targeted killings of ANP workers in the past three months. Overall, 22 members of the Swat Amn Committee, that the ANP constitutes a big part of, have been killed since 2009. [...]

In Karachi, where the ANP has a strong following, party cadres have been hit hard by the TTP-Swat. Since elections in 2013, when the TTP declared war on the ANP, the Muttahida Qaumi Movement and the Pakistan People's Party, asking voters to stay away from campaign meetings and polling, the ANP has lost candidates and elections to targeted attacks in neighborhoods such as Lyari and SITE where it won in 2008.

According to Zia-ur-Rehman, a researcher based in Karachi, 70 ANP activists have been targeted in Karachi alone. " (Dawn, November 13, 2014)

The Pakistani weekly newspaper The Friday Times reported in June 2014 that the continued killing of party leaders and attacks on their homes and businesses in Karachi had forced the ANP to cease all overt political activities.

According to the chairman of the ANP Sindh, the party registered more than 250,000 members in its last membership campaign four years ago, compared to just 40,000 this time. This is related to people's fear. The TTP killed more than 100 party officials and party workers in Karachi, prompting others to quit the party or leave the city.

Political analysts would assume that attacks on party leaders of the ANP in Karachi represent a continuation of the TTP attacks on the ANP in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and in the tribal areas under federal administration, and above all with a "clash of ideologies" and the Pashtun nationalist ones , secular orientation of the party would be related. According to a political analyst based in Islamabad, attacks on influential Pashtun elders are the key strategy of the Taliban groups. This was first successfully implemented in Afghanistan, then in the tribal areas under federal administration and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and now in Karachi:

"The unabated killing of party leaders and attacks on their houses and businesses in Karachi have compelled the Awami National Party (ANP) to stop all overt political activities in the city. [...]

‘The ANP had registered more than 250,000 members in its last membership drive carried out four years ago, but this time, we were able to register only 40,000 members,’ [the ANP’s Sindh president Shahi] Syed said. ‘It is because of fear. The TTP has killed more than 100 party office-bearers and workers in Karachi, compelling others to leave the party, or leave the city. ’[...]

Political analysts believe that attacks on ANP's Karachi leaders is a continuation of the TTP attacks on the ANP in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and FATA [Federally Administered Tribal Areas], related mainly to a 'clash of ideologies' and because of the party's Pashtun-nationalist secular outlook . Hasan Khan, an Islamabad-based political analyst who monitors the Taliban insurgency in the region, says ANP has always opposed the Taliban and their predecessors - the Afghan Mujahideen. ‘Targeting influential Pashtun elders is the key strategy of Taliban groups, first successfully carried out in Afghanistan, then FATA and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and now in Karachi,’ he said. " (The Friday Times, June 27, 2014)

The Pakistani daily Express Tribune mentioned in an article in February 2014 that more than 80 people linked to the ANP had been killed in Karachi since 2013. The majority of these people were killed in targeted attacks and bombings. According to a senior investigator, most of the attacks were carried out by insurgents:

"Over 80 people associated with ANP have been killed so far in Karachi since last year. The majority of them were killed in targeted attacks and bomb blasts. ‘The investigations reveal that most of the attacks on ANP men were carried out by militants,’ revealed a senior investigation officer. " (Express Tribune, February 22, 2014)

Inter Press Service (IPS), a non-governmental news agency whose reporting focuses on development issues, mentioned in an article from September 2013 that the TTP killed around 800 ANP leaders and party workers during the ANP's reign in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa:

"The ANP has long been targeted by the Taliban. The Tehrik-i / Taliban Pakistan (TTP) killed about 800 ANP leaders and workers when the party was in government in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan (2008-2013) because of the party’s tough stand against them. " (IPS, September 16, 2013)

The website CentralAsiaOnline, funded by the US Regional Command for the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia (USCENTCOM), reported in an article from July 2012 about threats by the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) against supporters of the ANP in Karachi. According to the article, the Taliban killed more than 500 ANP leaders and party workers in recent years because the party was part of the democratic government. ANP members were also attacked elsewhere in Pakistan, the article goes on to say. According to the head of an anti-extremism police unit in Karachi, the Taliban killed several ANP leaders and supporters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province:

"Amid Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) threats, Karachi Pashtun supporters of the Awami National Party (ANP) remain committed to supporting their party, fighting militants and pursuing a more democratic society. [...]

The Taliban have killed more than 500 ANP leaders and workers in recent years because the party has been part of the democratic government. By threatening party members, the TTP hopes to weaken the democratic process, officials said. [...]

Taliban have attacked ANP members elsewhere

The Taliban have killed several leaders and supporters of the ANP in KP [Khyber Pakhtunkhwa] and the party is determined to defeat them, [chief of the Crimes Investigation Department Anti-Extremist Cell of Karachi Police Chaudry] Aslam added. ” (Central Asia Online, July 26, 2012)

Radio France Internationale (RFI), the international public radio service in France, reported in April 2013 that the Taliban had killed more than 100 members of the ANP since 2008. The party was a major target of Islamist attacks aimed at disrupting the election campaign leading up to the 2013 elections:

"Although the ANP advocates dialogue with 'moderate' tribal leaders in the tribal agencies, which are largely Pashtun, over 100 of its members have been killed by the Taliban since 2008 and it is a principal target of the Islamist attacks that aim to disrupt the 2013 election campaign. " (RFI, April 29, 2013)

BBC News wrote in an April 2013 article that the Pakistan People's Party (PPP), the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) and the ANP were identified by a Pakistani Taliban spokesman as "legitimate" targets for insurgents during the May 2013 elections be. The ANP has its main base of support in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province and has considerable support in Karachi as well.

As the article further states, the insurgents have repeatedly demonstrated their ability to attack secular parties. The ANP, which led the outgoing government in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, was worst hit.

In October 2008, the party leader Asfandyar Wali narrowly escaped a suicide attack near his house in Charsadda (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, note by ACCORD). Since then, the top party leaders have been restricting their movements and avoiding exposure in public. According to a BBC Urdu report, more than 700 ANP activists have been killed by snipers or suicide bombers in the past four years. In the past few weeks, bombs with low penetration ("low-intensity bombs") have exploded at several ANP election events:

"The PPP [Pakistan People's Party] is one of three parties recently named by a spokesman of the Pakistani Taliban as 'legitimate' targets for militant attacks during the elections, due in May. The other two parties on the hit list are the Karachi- based MQM [Muttahida Qaumi Movement], and the Pashtun nationalist ANP party which has its main base in the north-western province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and also enjoys sizeable support in Karachi. [...]

Thus far, the militants have repeatedly demonstrated their ability to attack the secular parties, while the security forces have failed to clear them out of their known sanctuaries in the north-west. The ANP party, which led the outgoing administration in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, has been the worst hit.

In October 2008, the party's chief, Asfandyar Wali, narrowly escaped a suicide bomb attack near his residence in Charsadda. Since then, the party's top leaders have limited their movements and have avoided public exposure. A recent report by BBC Urdu said that more than 700 ANP activists have been killed by snipers or suicide bombers during the last four years, including a top party leader, Bashir Bilour. In recent weeks, low-intensity bombs have gone off at several local ANP election meetings, reducing its ability to conduct an open campaign. " (BBC News, April 5, 2013)

Deutsche Welle (DW) stated in May 2013 that “leaders and functionaries” of the ANP were “targets of the Pakistani Taliban” and that, according to party information, over 700 ANP activists had been killed in attacks by Islamists in recent years:

“The PPP has ruled the country together with the Awami National Party (ANP) and the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) for the past five years. None of the three parties can hold public events in the hot election phase. The reason: their leaders and officials are targeted by the Pakistani Taliban. [...] According to the ANP, which had 13 seats in the last parliament, militant Islamists have killed more than 700 ANP activists in the past five years. "(DW, May 10, 2013)

The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP), an independent non-profit organization with the aim of monitoring compliance with human rights and defending them, writes in its annual report of March 2014 (reporting period 2013) that the Tehrik-e- The Taliban (TTP) announced before the elections on May 11, 2013, specifically against the so-called “secular” parties of Pakistan, the Awami National Party (ANP), the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MGM) and the Pakistan People's Party (PPP ) wanting to proceed.

In the run-up to the elections, there were at least six major attacks on the ANP. On April 16, 2013, a suicide bomber killed 16 supporters of the party in Peshawar when he blew himself up at a political meeting. The target of the attack was the nephew of the ANP leader Ghulam Ahmed Bilour.

On March 31, 2013, ANP member Adnan Wazir, who was running for a seat in the provincial assembly of Khyber Pakhtunkhwas, was injured in a roadside bomb attack on his convoy. The TTP confessed to the attack in which two ANP supporters were killed.

On April 10, 2013, Fakhrul Islam, one of the party's candidates, was shot dead in the city of Hyderabad (in the province of Sindh, note ACCORD). The Taliban confessed to his murder. The next day, another candidate was killed in Karachi.

On April 12, 2013, Arbab Ayub Jan, an ANP candidate for the National Assembly in a constituency in Peshawar, and his son, an ANP candidate for a seat in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwas provincial assembly, survived a bombing near their home. On the same day, insurgents threw hand grenades at the home of Munaf Afridi, an ANP candidate for the National Assembly from the Khyber Agency. However, nobody was injured or killed in the process.

On April 21, 2013, two ANP activists were killed in an attack on an election rally in Pishin, Balochistan Province.

On April 22, 2013, two people were injured in a grenade attack on an ANP office in Swabi (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, note by ACCORD).

On April 26, 2013, eleven people were killed and more than 50 others injured when a bomb exploded at an election rally of the ANP candidate Bashir Jan in Karachi:

"The Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) announced ahead of the May 11 general election that they would specifically target what they called Pakistan's' secular 'parties: Awami National Party (ANP), Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) and Pakistan Peoples' Party (PPP) and added that they did not expect any good from the other parties either. The parties that were spared remained ominously silent on the attacks on their rivals.

In the run-up to elections, the ANP faced at least six major attacks. On April 16, a suicide bomber killed 16 of the party’s supporters when he blew himself up outside a political meeting in Peshawar. Senior ANP leader Ghulam Ahmed Bilour escaped with minor injuries. The target of the attack was his nephew, Haroon Bilour, whose father, an ANP provincial minister, was assassinated in December 2012. […]

On March 31, ANP candidate Adnan Wazir, running for a KP Assembly seat from Bannu District, was among six people wounded by a roadside bomb targeting his convoy. The TTP claimed responsibility for the attack that killed two ANP supporters.

On April 10, Fakhrul Islam, one of the party’s candidates in the southern city of Hyderabad was shot dead. The Taliban claimed responsibility. The next day, another candidate, SM Shiraz, was slain in Karachi.

On April 12, Arbab Ayub Jan, the ANP candidate for the National Assembly (NA) constituency NA-4 in Peshawar, and his son Arbab Usman - an ANP candidate running for a Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Assembly seat - survived a bombing near their house.

The same day, militants hurled hand grenades at the house of Munaf Afridi, an ANP candidate for an NA seat from Khyber Agency. No casualties occurred. [...]

On April 21, two ANP activists were killed in Pishin, Balochistan, in an attack on an election rally.

On April 22, a grenade attack on an ANP office in Swabi left two injured. [...]

On April 26, 11 people were killed and over 50 others injured when a bomb blast hit the election meeting of ANP candidate Bashir Jan in Karachi. " (HRCP, March 2014, 142-143)

The Pak Institute for Peace Studies (PIPS), an Islamabad-based independent think tank in the field of national and international security, published a report from May 2013 on violence against political parties, candidates and voters in connection with the May 11, 2013 elections a. According to the report, the ANP was the party that faced the most terrorist attacks (37) between January 1 and May 15, 2013. Insurgents would have hit the ANP hard in almost every region of Pakistan:

"Awami National Party (ANP) faced maximum number of terrorist attacks between January 1 and May 15 (37), followed by Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) and Mutahidda Qaumi Movement (MQM) with 12 attacks each. While militants hit hard ANP and PPP in almost every region of Pakistan, MQM was frequently targeted in Karachi. " (PIPS, May 2013, p.2)

On pages 4 to 6 of the same report there is a table showing the geographical distribution of terrorist attacks on political leaders, party workers and polling stations. In the “Target of attack” column, the ANP appears in each of the regions / provinces listed (tribal areas under federal administration, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Beluchistan and Sindh) with the exception of the Punjab province. (PIPS, May 2013, pages 4-6)

The same source states in its annual report on the security situation from January 2014 (reporting period 2013) that the ANP was the party that faced the most terrorist attacks (43) on its leaders, party workers, election offices and rallies during the reporting period:

"Awami National Party (ANP), its leaders, workers and election offices and rallies faced maximum number of terrorist attacks (43), followed by Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) (17 attacks), Pakistan People's Party (PPP) (13), Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam-Fazl (JUI-F) (12), Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) (10), two factions of Balochistan National Party (BNP-A and BNP-M) (10), Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf (PTI) (8), National Party (NP) (6), and Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) (5 attacks). ” (PIPS, January 4, 2014, p.30)

According to a table included in the report, the attacks on the ANP in Sindh (Karachi), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Charsadda, Mardan, Lakki Marwat, Swabi, Peschawar, Swat, Kohat, Novschera, Buner), the federally administered tribal areas (Bajaur Agency) and Balochistan (Pischin) took place (PIPS, January 4, 2014, p.31).

In addition, according to the same report, a total of 17 members / activists of the ANP were killed in 2013 in ethno-political violence. According to the report, apart from four hand grenade attacks, three cases of sabotage and one case of kidnapping, the incidents of ethno-political violence involved targeted killings and armed clashes between leaders / party workers of rival political parties. (PIPS, January 4, 2014, p.32-33)

In its annual report on the security situation from January 2015 (reporting period 2014), the PIPS writes that, as in previous years, the ANP was the party whose leaders and party workers were confronted with the most terrorist attacks (16):

"As in previous year, leaders and workers of Awami National Party (ANP) faced maximum number of terrorist attacks (16), followed by Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) (6 attacks), Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam- Fazl (JUI-F) (5), Pakistan People's Party (PPP) (4), two factions of Balochistan National Party (BNPA and BNP-M) (4), Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf (PTI) (2), National Party (2), and Qaumi Watan Party (2 attacks). ” (PIPS, January 2015, p.31)

According to a table contained in the report, the attacks on the ANP took place in Sindh (Karachi), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Peschawar, Lakki Marwat, Charsadda, Novschera, Bannu, Hangu) and the tribal areas under federal administration (Khyber Agency) and were carried out by the TTP, local Taliban and Laschkar-e-Islam (PIPS, January 2015, p.32).

The South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP), operated by the Institute for Conflict Management, a New Delhi-based non-profit NGO, writes in a 2015 report on the security situation in Sindh Province that political assassinations are a growing trend in the provincial capital Karachi. Activists of the PPP, the MQM and the ANP were the main targets of the attack. A total of 106 ANP activists have been killed since 2011, eight of them in 2014. Political parties have also drawn the wrath of the TTP and its splinter groups:

“Targeted political killings have also been a rising trend in the provincial capital. Activists of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP), the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) and the Awami National Party (ANP) have been the principal targets, with a total of 391 activists of these parties, including 221 of MQM, 106 of ANP, and 64 of PPP, killed since 2011. 46 of these, including 30 MQM, and eight each of ANP and PPP, were killed in 2014 alone. Moreover, political parties have also drawn the ire of TTP and its splinter groups. " (SATP, 2015)

Based on reports from the news media, the SATP provides chronological lists of security incidents in Pakistan for 2015 (last entry dated March 8, 2015) and 2014 on its website. Both listings were searched for the terms “ANP” and “Awami National Party”. Several entries were found on attacks on ANP members, the attacks in which hand grenades, bombs and firearms were used, mainly in Karachi, but also in Peshawar, in the district of Charsadda (province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, note ACCORD) as well as in the district of Swat (also in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, note ACCORD). In the majority of cases, an ANP leader is cited as the target of the attack. The lists are available from the following links:

SATP - South Asia Terrorism Portal: Pakistan Timeline - 2014, last entry from December 31, 2014

http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/timeline/2014.htm

SATP - South Asia Terrorism Portal: Pakistan Timeline - 2015, last entry from March 8, 2015

http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/timeline/index.html

In the sources listed above, in addition to the killings of party leaders and cadres, candidates and functionaries, the killings of party activists and members are also cited without mentioning their rank within the party.

In an email response dated March 15, 2015, a Pakistan-based political scientist, who has not given his consent to naming, alleges that the ANP has been in the line of fire in the past and is still currently in the line of fire. However, as far as he knew, simple party members were not targeted. Exceptions are Swat and Malakand Division (both in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, note ACCORD), where there have been reports that simple but active party workers of the ANP have been targeted:

"ANP was and still is in the line of fire. However, as far as I know, ordinary members have not been targeted, except for Swat, Malakand division where there have been reports of targeting of ordinary, but active ANP workers. " (Political scientist, March 15, 2015)

The question of whether the killings of ANP members also affected ordinary party members of the ANP was passed on to other external experts. Should we receive an answer from them, we will forward it to you immediately.

Swell:(Accessed to all sources on March 20, 2015)

BBC News: Pakistan election: Taliban threats hamper secular campaign, April 5, 2013

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-22022951

BBC News: Mutual antipathy hampers Pakistan control of militants, December 19, 2014

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-30520596

Central Asia Online: TTP warns ANP workers to quit party, July 26, 2012

http://centralasiaonline.com/en_GB/articles/caii/features/pakistan/main/2012/07/26/feature-01

Dawn: Situationer: ANP in the cross hairs, November 13, 2014

http://www.dawn.com/news/1144110

· Dunya News: ANP, MQM demand govt to conduct army operation in Karachi, January 5th, 2015

http://dunyanews.tv/index.php/en/Pakistan/253536-ANP-MQM-demand-govt-to-conduct-army-operation-in-

DW - Deutsche Welle: Pakistan's election campaign overshadowed by terror, May 10, 2013

http://www.dw.de/pakistans-wahlkampf-von-terror-%C3%BCberschaturated/a-16796495

DW - Deutsche Welle: Pakistan’s Charlie Hebdo reward: No room for secular politics, February 4, 2015

http://www.dw.de/pakistans-charlie-hebdo-reward-no-room-for-secular-politics/a-18233731

Express Tribune: Who did it ?: Police investigations make little headway into ANP killings, February 22, 2014

http://tribune.com.pk/story/674687/who-did-it-police-investigations-make-little-headway-into-anp-killings/

HRCP - Human Rights Commission of Pakistan: State of Human Rights in 2013, March 2014

http://www.hrcp-web.org/hrcpweb/report14/AR2013.pdf

· IPS - Inter Press Service - News Agency: Executions on Hold ‘for the Wrong Reasons’, September 16, 2013

http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/09/executions-on-hold-for-the-wrong-reasons/

Le Monde Diplomatique: The Land of the Pashtuns (Author: Owen Bennett-Jones), January 9, 2015

http://www.monde-diplomatique.de/pm/2015/01/09.mondeText.artikel,a0009.idx,1

PIPS - Pak Institute for Peace Studies: Elections 2013: Violence against Political Parties, Candidates and Voters, May 2013

http://san-pips.com/download.php?f=222.pdf

PIPS - Pak Institute for Peace Studies: Pakistan Security Report 2013, January 4, 2014

http://san-pips.com/download.php?f=240.pdf

PIPS - Pak Institute for Peace Studies: Pakistan Security Report 2014, January 2015

http://san-pips.com/index.php?action=books&id=main (chargeable)

Political scientist: E-Mail inquiry, March 15, 2015

RFI - Radio France Internationale: Awami National Party - Pashtun party seeks national role, April 29, 2013

http://www.english.rfi.fr/asia-pacific/20130429-awami-national-party

SATP - South Asia Terrorism Portal: Pakistan Timeline - 2014, last entry from December 31, 2014

http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/timeline/2014.htm

SATP - South Asia Terrorism Portal: Pakistan Timeline - 2015, last entry from March 8, 2015

http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/timeline/index.html

SATP - South Asia Terrorism Portal: Sindh Assessment - 2015, 2015

http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/sindh/index.html

The Friday Times: Lie low, June 27, 2014

http://www.thefridaytimes.com/tft/lie-low/