In industrial microbiology what is screening

Industrial Microbiology Chapters 15, 11

Transcript

1 Industrial Microbiology Chapter 15, 11

2 industrial microbiology / biocatalysis products

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4 Formation of primary and secondary metabolites (a) Formation of alcohol through yeast Formation of penicillin through Penicillium chrysogenum

5 antibiotics derived from the metabolism of aromatic amino acids

6 fermenter - bioreactor

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8 industrial fermentations

9 research fermenters and industrial fermenters

10 Vitamin production with microorganisms Vitamin B 12. Riboflavin (vitamin B 2)

11 Lysine production with Brevibacterium flavum

12 Microbial biotransformation in the synthesis of cortisone

13 Enzymes Acid-tolerant enzymes for digestion of food in the stomach Pullulanase from Pyrococcus woesei

14 Immobilization of enzymes

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16 winemaking transport system fermentation tanks barrels in which the maturation

17 winemaking white wine varieties: Chablis, (Riesling, Sautern and Chardonnay. Typical red wines: Burgundy, Chianti, Claret, Zinfandel, Cabernet and Merlot.

18 beer brewing copper brewing kettle, the wort is mixed with hops and then boiled (a, b) and then stored (c, d)

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21 Figure 4

22 Maturing in wooden vessels gives some distilled alcohols a distinct amber color or a light yellow

23 Ethanol Production Plant

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25 Production of vinegar: Oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid

26 Vinegar production on a sprinkler system (4%)

27 Citric acid fermentation with Aspergillus niger

28 Industrial production of yeast

29 Commercial mushroom growing Champignon (Agaricus bisporus) Shii-take mushroom (Lentinus edulus)

30 Annual production and consumption of antibiotics Annual production approx. 500 tons

31 Screening for antibiotic producers (from left to right): Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae Mycobacterium smegmatis.

32 Purification of an Antibiotic

33 Pucci MJ et al. Cuatious Optimism for the Antibacterial Pipeline. Microbe 9, (2014)

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35 Industrial production of penicillins Penicillium chrysogenum

36 Kinetics of penicillin fermentation with Penicillium chrysogenum

37 Scheme of the production process for chlorotetracycline with Streptomyces aureofaciens

38 Antimicrobial spectrum of activity

39 How antibiotics work

40 Structure and effects of sulfonamide

41 analogues of growth factors

42 quinolone antibiotics ciprofloxacin for urinary tract infections and anthrax

43 Inactivation by ß-lactamases penicillins

44 Aminoglycoside antibiotics Kanamycin, inactivation by N-acetylation

45 Macrolide antibiotics Erythromycin, characteristic is a macrocyclic lactone

46 tetracyclines

47 Antimycotic chemotherapeutic agents

48 Inactivation of antibiotics by chemical modification

49 Antibiotic resistance in bacteria Correlation between resistance and production (application) Increase in resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to pemicillin (USA) Center of Disease Control and Prevention, Georgia

50 Antibiotic Resistance in Human Pathogenic Bacteria * Multi-Resistant Strains

51 Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among patients in intensive care units

52 Modeling of Antiviral Agents Protease Inhibitors: Peptide Analogs Against HIV Protease

53 Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

54 principles of genetic engineering

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61 hosts for gene cloning

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65 Synthesis of complementary DNA (cdna) from mrna retroviral reverse transcriptase is used. The poly-A tail is typical of eukaryotic mrnas.

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67 Deriving oligonucleotide probe from amino acid sequence

68 Genetic engineering of human insulin by bacteria

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70 The green fluorescent protein (GFP) in yeast A DNA binding protein was fused with GFP and made visible with fluorescence microscopy. c: superimposition of a and b.

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72 Production of transgenic plants with the help of a binary vector system in Agrobacterium tumefaciens The disarmed D-Ti plasmid can mobilize the vector and transfer it into the plant cell

73 Herbicide-resistant transgenic soybean plants Left: Glyphosate-resistant plants. Right: wild type

74 Transgenic plants with insect resistance a) Feeding damage to the caterpillars of the sugar beet owl Spodoptera exiguabei normal in tobacco leaves. b) b) Tobacco leaves from transgenic plants which express the Bt toxin in their chloroplasts.