Why skip magazine article pages

General principles

There are many different ways of citing literature and creating bibliographical lists. In order to reduce the problems that can arise when citing references and designing the bibliography, the recommendations of The Chicago Manual of Style, which are briefly explained below, are implemented at the Institute for Conveyor Technology and Logistics Systems You here too

There are basically three ways to mark literature:

  1. Short references to the bibliography are provided in the ongoing text.

    Example: As Meier (1995, p. 366) comments critically, there is nothing in the social assistance basket that suggests the dignity of the human being, which is declared as the goal of social assistance in Section 1 of the Social Assistance Act.
  2. When quoting verbatim, directly after the quotation with a period after the bracket for the reference.

    Example: There are no goods in the social welfare shopping basket from which one could say: "This shows human dignity." (Meier 1995, p. 366). On the other hand ...
  3. Without a quote in the current sentence immediately after the argument or the information that was used, or at the end of the sentence as a bracket before the period that ends the sentence:

    Example: On the one hand, it is argued that human dignity does not appear in the social welfare basket (Meier 1995, p. 366), on the other hand, the lack of the simplest things in life would already be a threat to human dignity (Großkopf, Müller 1998, p. 14).

A separate abbreviation is constructed for each source, namely with the surname (without first name) of the author, the year of publication and the page number, e.g. B. (Müller 1997, p. 45).
If the reference extends beyond one page to the following page, an f (for the following) is placed after the page name, e.g. B. (Müller 1997, p. 45f), if there are several pages, an ff (for continued following) is set, e.g. B. (Müller 1997, p. 45ff).

  • If there are several titles by the same author from the same year, an addition a, b, c is added (Müller 1997c, p. 45).
  • If there are up to three authors, all names are given, separated by commas, e.g .: (Maier, Müller, Zech 1996, p. 44) If there are more than three authors, only the first is given with the addition, among other things. (for "and others"), e.g. E.g .: (Maier et al. 1996, p. 44). In principle, the names of all authors are listed in the bibliography.
  • This type of evidence applies to literal or direct quotations, which are marked with "double" quotation marks (quotation marks in the case of quotation in the quotation 'single') as for indirect references. The addition "cf." not applicable for indirect quotations.
  • If the same source is repeatedly referred to in a longer text passage, one can write: (Simple page numbers in the following text refer to Müller 1997).
  • If a general reference is made to a work and the theory represented in it, the abbreviation can be used without a page number. (Marx 1867) then refers to the first volume of Karl Marx, Das Kapital.
  • If the author is not known, the names of the editors can be used to construct an abbreviation. If there are no personal names, institutions can also be used. If there is no such thing, you can take the most important word out of the title.
  • If no year of publication is given, then put in brackets (no year) (without year).
  • In the case of information from a lexicon, no page number is given, only the abbreviation of the lexicon and the year of publication are given (Brockhaus 1996). The full information on the lexicon then appears in the bibliography after the abbreviation. If the individual keywords in the lexicon are given the names of the authors, they are treated like essays.
  • In the case of information from newspaper reports, i.e. not from articles with author information (e.g. a number about the decline in social assistance), the source given there must be cited and the information provided with the abbreviation of the newspaper and the date of publication: "According to the Federal Statistical Office, the number has the welfare recipient ... (FAZ 13. 12. 99 p.4). " Only the newspaper, not the edition cited, is listed in the list of sources: FAZ: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung.
  • If you have information from lectures, lectures, interviews or from the Internet, you can also use the rules described above to construct an abbreviation that is as unambiguous as possible with the year so that you can easily link the information with the list of sources.

In the following, the necessary information in the bibliography for the cited literature is presented depending on the type of literature source.


Monograph with one author

Feyerabend, P. (1980). Knowledge for free people. Springer, Frankfurt / Main.

Monograph with several authors

Mallach, H. J., Hartmann, H. & Schmidt, V. (1987). Effects of alcohol on humans. Pathophysiology, detection, intoxication, interactions. Stuttgart, New York.

Monograph in a series of books

Müller, R. (1992). The Austro-Hungarian uprising of 1867. Its foundations and effects. Book series of the Southeast German Historical Commission Volume 20. T. Mayer (Ed.). Springer, Munich 2nd ed.

Monograph without location information

Frantzen, K. (1997). Social work in Thuringia. Springer, o. O.

Monograph without a year

Fritzkoweit, D. (no year). The sinking of the Titanic as a motif of trivial literature in times of crisis. Springer, Munich 6th edition.

Monograph as an unpublished manuscript

Brauns, H.-P. & Schmitz, B. (1981). First results of a real analysis of the autokinetic effect. Lecture given at the 23rd Conference of Experimental Psychologists in Berlin. Unpublished manuscript.


Bubner, R., Konrad, C. & Wiehl, R. (Eds.) (1970). Hermeneutics and Dialectics. Springer, Tuebingen.


Article in an anthology

Schöbel, C. (1995). Socialization in different systems. To the profile of personality types in West and East Berlin. In: H.-D. Klingemann, H.-D., Erbring, L. & Diederich, N. (Ed.). Between turning point and reunification. Analyzes of political culture in West and East Berlin 1990, Opladen, pp. 15-39.

Article in an anthology by several authors

Gruber-Kliem, J., Murrer, D., Striemer, K. & Meier, C. (1999). The analysis of childhood memory of schizophrenics. In: Gruber-Kliem, J. & Meier, C. (Ed.), Schizophrenia and Childhood, pp. 434-456, Opladen.

Article in a magazine

Hermer, M. (1994). Little Psychopathology of the Clinical Psychologist. Report Psychologie, 48 vol. (1994) H. 11 (alternative form: 48 (1994) 11, pp. 12-18.

Journal article with several authors

Rupp, W., Raudonat, H.-W., Muschaweck, R., Hajdú, P., Brettel, H.F. (1969). The importance of diuresis in drinking attempts. II. Communication: Influence on the renal excretion of alcohol and fluids. Blood alcohol 5, pp. 325-335.


Article in newspaper with author

In the case of longer articles, these are treated like a journal article in the bibliography: Leffers, J. (1994). The agonizing way to the exam. Help with academic writing is rare. Süddeutsche Zeitung No. 244, 22.-23. October, p. H3

Newspaper article without an author's name

In the list of sources, the abbreviation used in the text is placed in alphabetical order and then the name of the newspaper is listed. The dates of the newspaper reports referred to in the text are not listed. It is also possible to create a subdirectory in the list of sources: newspapers.


Web sources

There are no standardized procedures for Internet references in the list of sources / bibliographies.
There are two possibilities:

  1. Include the internet source in the usual bibliography / source index, insert the name of the author / publisher / source designation alphabetically and enter the URL (see section 4.2).
  2. keep all internet sources in their own directory (e.g .: "internet references").

Website with author

Like a journal article. Internetse is used instead of the magazine name. If the information is of great importance for your own argumentation, a printout of the website should be attached.

Website without an author

The Internet address must be given in full with the web name and the date on which the file was viewed. z. For example: http://www.fh-erfurt.de/so on October 16, 1999 If the information is of great importance for your own argumentation, a printout from the website should be attached.