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Truth and lie

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Textbook pages 44 and 258

- Truth and lie -
Is it justified and morally defensible to have one White lie to use or has a general duty to do so truth?
Which positions represent Schopenhauer, Kant, the utilitarians, Stirner and the philosophers listed in the book?
Maria Hanstein GK 12 June 21, 2007
“The inventor of the White lie loved peace more than that truth. "(James Joyce)
According to the textbook definition, one is lie an intentionally misleading statement by which the relationship between (small or large) communities can be burdened or disturbed, but is in most cases not punishable.
Many philosophers and scholars have dealt with the subject of Truth and lie set apart and the opinions raised by this issue differ greatly.
Augustine, who lived from 354 to 430, and Kant (1724-1804) agree with the definition of "Lie" agree as they believe that each lie is morally impermissible. According to Augustine, language serves to convey thoughts and not to mislead others. However, this point of view would also imply that we have to banish all irony and sarcasm from our daily life, as this also directly confuses people.
However, it also states that we are someone with a lie can help, but just like the confusion caused by disinformation, it is a sin.
On the other hand, I am of the opinion that one should not call it a sin if one goes through a Falsehood Supporting someone else in a matter and thus possibly helping them out of a tricky situation.
Let's just take “the double lottery” as an example. Two girls, who are twins but don't know each other and think that the parent they don't live with is dead, meet by chance in a holiday camp and swap roles around the father they believed to be lost or the mother who is believed to have died to get to know. This action is already a great false pretense, as two people assume a completely different identity.
However, this initiative serves a good cause, as the girls have a right to know who they really are, who they belong to, who belongs to them, as it serves to identify themselves.
You didn't hurt anyone in the process. The story is like a puzzle in which two essential parts are missing and in the end just by these "White lie" were found and could be put together.
At this point I would like to quote Franz Kafka, who said: “Everything, even them lie, serves the Truth; Shadows do not extinguish the sun. "
So in this regard I agree with the philosopher Christian Wolff (1679-1754), who only lyingwho have a reprehensible goal, consider immoral.
The Bible says: “You must not bear false testimony against your neighbor!” (9th commandment), but there are also people who might really truth want to say, but not make it due to illness, because they suffer from pseudology, a disease that creates the urge to be pathological lying and overdoing it.
Peter Stiegnitz has dealt with the human Lying behavior employed and thus more or less justified the social science psychology field “mentiology”.
In mentiology, the lie defined as a conscious turning away from reality without exceeding the limits of immoral behavior (or only in a few cases). According to this theory, the opposite of lie Not truth but reality.
I think that people who suffer from such a disease cannot be considered for lying condemn. Regardless of this, they have to be mentioned in connection with this problem, since these people belong to society and many of their counterparts may not know that they are dealing with a pathological liar.
I only recently read in an Internet forum that a girl for 1 œ years had a relationship with a person suffering from pseudology without knowing about his illness. Only after a long time did she notice that he was entangled in contradictions and confronted him with them. Because of this, the relationship ended immediately afterwards.
Benjamin Constant (1767-1830) considers the problem of Truth and lie from a completely different point of view. And I think his point of view is part of the definition of "White lie" contains, because he says: “The truth it is therefore a duty to say; but only against those who have a right to the truth Has.". Of course, this admission that Constant makes in his statement cannot be compared with the insertion that we would use today, in the 21st century, but it is much more than Kant would have admitted, because for him it is a “truthfulness in statements that cannot be circumvented, [is] a formal duty of man towards everyone ”, regardless of whether it is the speaker or the person speaking from it truth a disadvantage may or may not arise.
Constant has an excellent example in his text to criticize Kant's view: If I were asked by a murderer whether the man he was looking for, who is a friend of mine, was hiding in my house, Kant said I should the truth say that I can't get around this answer. With that I would hand my friend over to the murderer and according to national law I would make myself an accomplice, since I would have helped the perpetrator directly to murder his victim.
So I would harm two people at the same time just because I truth said.
But Kant argues with the categorical imperative, which demands that one should only act according to the maxim that one can also want to become the basis of generally applicable legislation.
The general admission of the lieIn whatever exceptional situations, however, the understanding between people and thus being human itself would be permanently called into question, as can be seen in the example of Constant’s.
Utilitarians like Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), John Stuart Mill (1806-1876), and Peter Singer (born 1946) would also look at this topic in an entirely different way.
The basic principle of utilitarianism is - in general terms - to achieve the greatest possible happiness for the greatest possible number.
If we stick to the example of the murderer looking for his victim in our house, according to utilitarianism it would be the greater happiness for the greater number if I were the criminal to lie to by telling him that the person he was looking for is not in my house.
It would be different in politics, for example lying (although each of the theories would put a stop to it, would not agree with it; but now specifically on utilitarianism), because Mrs. Merkel, our Chancellor, would us to lie toSo that she could stay on the Federal Chancellor's chair for another legislative period, that would only be her luck, and not that of the German state and in this case the state predominates quantitatively.
Therefore, according to utilitarianism, there are situations in which this lying should be avoided.
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 - 1860), in contrast to the already very diverse views on the subject of Falsehood, his very own theory of why lying are simply reprehensible, but could also be useful.
For Schopenhauer serves the lie also to influence the will, which can be both positive and negative.
Schopenhauer realizes someone lie All in all, not only means telling him something other than what you think yourself or as truth looks at, but rather to influence and control the other in his will, i.e. in the end in his behavior. The disinformation carries out this behavior control because it leads the counterpart to think of something as his truth to accept what is not his truth is. The lie So it settles in the consciousness of the other, changes his cognitive faculties and thereby subdues his will. So motivation is one liebecause for the will it simulates motives that were not the original, but now appear and are accepted as the will's own. Wanting to motivate someone does not only mean to reshape another will for his own purposes, to subordinate motives to the other that are not his, but (here something in common with Kant could be established) also represents a form of contempt for the other because his will not accepted as a will, but - in whatever good or supposedly good intention - it should first be shaped from the outside.
Still considered Schopenhauer the lie not exclusively as bad, because this motivation can also have positive effects, so you can suggest people to be good, just as you can influence them to make them bad.
Nonetheless, represents Schopenhauer the view that it is wrong by a Falsehood To influence the behavior of the other person, but it is okay to refuse to give them a true answer, as this does not harm them directly.
However, the German literary historian and philosopher Ludwig Marcuse once said: “The Falsehoods are often not in what you say, but in what you don't say Schopenhauer Conception of silence as a "benefit" (or better than a lie) Would find points of criticism.
Schopenhauer abhorred lyingthat could harm others, it also sees it in a similar way to self-defense, i.e. that it is to a certain extent justified insofar as it becomes necessary.
Philosophers like Max Stirner (1806-1856), for whom a principle such as “Nothing beats me!”, Discussed the problem of lie probably less thoughts. Egoists do everything in such a way that the result works out in their favor. So for sure they will quite often lying, just to always get what you want. They make life as easy as possible for themselves by only thinking of themselves and only looking at the effects of their actions on themselves.
From their point of view, this attitude is also justified. Why think of others when you have enough to do with yourself?
If we are honest with ourselves we will see that we are all lying and do it all the time. Little ones White lieswhy you're late, why you couldn't clean up, why homework wasn't done, why the dog wasn't outside and many other trivial issues. I think no one is ever on one White lie died (figuratively). Sure, sometimes we use White lieswithout really needing them, just out of fear truth accept. For example, a boy carelessly breaks the television because he overlooked a glass of juice on it and knocked it over. For fear of confessing his carelessness to his parents, he tries to explain to them that he doesn't know why the television is no longer working. But well, we all know the sixth sense in mothers. She finds out, of course, what he did. He gets house arrest - not because he made the television inoperable, but because he lied to his parents and thus disappointed them.
The Polish writer Wieslaw Brudzinski said: “The lie is a double that the truth represents in dangerous situations. "
This is the same as with an actor's double. Doubles are trained to be able to cope with every difficult situation unscathed and to survive every daring stunt without bending a hair. If an actor does not trust himself to do something, the double takes over this scene, even if the actual actor could have done it from a purely physical point of view if he had not been afraid.
And so we invent one or the other out of fear White lie, even if it might not be necessary at all.
As may have already been expressed, I do not take the opinion (like Kant) that humans generally have the duty to truth Has. Personally, I've been there quite often White lies second hand.
My brother and I used to play football in the living room quite often. Gates were my mother's balcony and glass vase cabinet. And yes, not only one vase broke, but I think there was only one case where we couldn't talk our way out because we were caught straight away (and I think at that moment my mother also knew how the other vases broke) .
And even today I still use one every now and then White lieFor example, I have been putting off a certain doctor's appointment for more than six months and keep telling the nurses new excuses why the appointment has to be postponed, although it is not so important that I or someone else would suffer , so completely harmless.
As long as one lie not controlling the entire life of a person or hindering or destroying the life of (another) person are small controlled ones Falsehoods OK in my opinion and by no means morally reprehensible.
In summary, my view can be illustrated with a quote from André Kaminski: “The truth is the most valuable of all goods and should be traded with thrift and restraint. "
A homework on the question:
"Is it justified and morally justifiable to use a white lie or do people generally have a duty to tell the truth?
What positions do Schopenhauer, Kant, the utilitarians, Stirner and the philosophers listed in the book represent? "

The philosophers listed in the book were: Augustine, Christian Wolff and Benjamin Constant.

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