What does a garlic plant look like
Garlic is delicious and healthy, garlic greens are delicious too, but not on the toe in the refrigerator, it just makes it bitter. But you can plant garlic, first harvest greens and then cloves - it's super easy, and the garlic doesn't need much care.
Garlic and clove of garlicGarlic belongs to the asparagus order, the amaryllis family, the leek subfamily and the leek genus (Allium). Even if not an amaryllis, the Allium sativum certainly has beautiful flowers like some ornamental onions. The garlic leek (knob goes back to an Old High German word for "split" because of the "split" toes) is better known as a spice. More and more people cook a lot with the delicious and healthy garlic cloves. These toes are the persistence organs of the perennial (perennial) leek plant, five to twenty secondary toes are formed next to the main toe, and sometimes also bulbs.
Best time to plant garlicThe toe that we squeeze into tzatziki, aioli or spaghetti sauce is also what the next garlic grows from. These cloves of garlic can be stuck in the ground in the perennial and hardy garlic in spring or autumn. If you only put a garlic in the garden for ornamental purposes, even at some point in between, it does not necessarily form nice big toes. If you want to harvest, you should keep to the rhythm, garlic initially allows the so-called round (the main toe) to grow and only begins to form the daughter onions (toes) after a certain time. In spring, garlic would have to be planted very early (end of February) so that the harvest in autumn is reasonably abundant, otherwise there is only an enlarged round or thin, isolated cloves. This is why September to the beginning of November are the best times for planting, then the Rundling will grow enough into winter to develop many daughter onions (a decent bulb of garlic) in the next growing season. The winter cold stimulus is said to have a positive effect on the growth of the onion, it will turn into a beautiful large tuber in the next summer (July to August).
groundGarlic grows best in loose and nutrient-rich soil, a garden soil that is well mixed with humus and mixed with sand. B. You are welcome to enrich the soil with ripe compost the previous autumn, garlic does not appreciate freshly dug or freshly fertilized soil. For pots / flower boxes you can use garden soil mixed with sand as a substrate, alternatively potting soil with sand. The defense against waterlogging is particularly important here, so a drainage (layer of gravel or stones) should be placed in a pot at the bottom of the permeable substrate.
Best location for garlicDepending on where you got your garlic (see below for garlic types), it needs a lot of sun or a lot of sun, especially in the initial period of cultivation. Garlic likes to grow next to, between, under strawberries, cucumbers, raspberries, lilies, carrots, fruit trees, roses, beets, tomatoes and tulips. He also keeps a number of pests away from them (which hardly threaten him themselves). Bad neighbors are beans, peas, cabbage and other nitrogen-producing legumes.
Planting garlicis simple:
- Insert the toe, point up, about 4 centimeters into the ground
- This can be done quickly if you pre-drill holes with the wood
- At a distance of around (at least) 10 cm
- Garlic thrives in beds and in pots on the windowsill
- You can also put germinating cloves of Mediterranean garlic in pots
- If your type of garlic produces bulbs (see below for types of garlic), they are set similarly (not quite as deep)
- They should take a season longer to develop magnificent tubers
Care of the garlicGarlic should be kept moist evenly and regularly until it grows, after which you don't have much to do with the garlic. He always needs a little moisture in the ground, but doesn't want to stand soaking wet, everything is normal. Garlic is hardy, but a blanket of straw / brushwood / mulch is still good for it. This also protects it a little from rain, too much rain is usually more harmful to garlic than frost. On a freely irrigated balcony, garlic cultivation should even be better placed on the rain-protected house wall in winter.
fertilizerGarlic does not necessarily need fertilizer, in well-cared for, nutrient-rich soil, the middle eater can get through the winter without it. You can pamper him next spring: Researchers from the Zhang Yin Xiong Li Lu Guo Xisheng Fertilizer Institute and the Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Sorry, but in China "a little more" garlic is grown than here and therefore more researched) studied the effect of fertilizers on the garlic harvest and found that garlic develops the highest levels of vitamin C and soluble sugars when fertilized with nitrogen and potassium 1: 1 + 1/2 phosphorus. For example, stable manure contains almost 2 g nitrogen, potassium and 0.8 g phosphorus per kg (flat average, it depends on what the animals have eaten), around 2.5 kg per square meter per season. You should save yourself synthetic fertilizer, even in this composition, if the guests at the barbecue are to be as enthusiastic about your tzatziki as always.
Harvest and storageIf you planted in the fall, you can start harvesting from the next early summer. First of all, the garlic green, which tastes a bit like garlic with a touch of chives and is much less noticeable in the smell than the garlic clove itself. If your garlic variety has flower stalks, you can cut them off before the bulbs form, which will make the bulbs larger. You can also leave a few stems and plant the bulbs straight back towards the end of the year. The cloves are harvested when a third of the garlic leaves are withered. If you use the tubers fresh, the exhalations will be gentler, and the rest of the harvest can be braided into braids and hung up to dry. You can also plant a few toes from the harvest for the next season, which will then bring another harvest.
Garlic varietiesAllium sativum is only available as a cultivated plant, it came to us in the cultivated form from Central and South Asia, the wild type is considered extinct. This cultivated garlic is available in two variants and many cultivars:
1. Allium sativum var. Sativum, the actual cultivated garlic that you usually buy in stores. Its characteristics:
- It grows with low, fairly straight stems with a rough edge
- The tuber has smaller toes on the inside than on the outside, and the numerous secondary bulbs grow elongated
- It does not form flower stalks and therefore also no bulbs
- In international trade this breed selection is called "Softneck"
- China is the world's main export country, hence the research cited above
- It forms funny, serpentine, curved foliage, tubers with a few large, rounded off-bulbs and flower stalks with brood tubers, which ensure the harvest of the following year
- This variant is known in international trade as "hardneck" (stiffneck), in Germany as garlic garlic or snake garlic or (in gourmet restaurants) as rocambole
- It grows well in northern areas, making a great garlic for the garden and window sill
- In rarity nurseries you can find it in pots or as a brood tuber, depending on the season
There are sub-types and cultivars of softnecks and hardnecks. A presentation of the several hundred cultivars would go beyond the scope of this article, and is (unfortunately) not yet necessary at the moment, only nameless universal garlic or rocambola are sold as planting material anyway. If you are interested in the varieties, which are quite different in terms of maturity, size and shelf life, you might find what you are looking for in English nurseries, occasionally also in German weekly markets or specialty nurseries. Also in the trade there are seldom variety names, but white and perhaps pink tubers from China, Argentina and Spain. You can put them in a pot when they germinate, these "warmth children" usually do not survive German winters. Trying can't do any harm, of course, but a plentiful harvest in the garden requires seedlings from specialist gardeners that are adapted to our climatic conditions.
Use garlicTo make garlic enjoyment a real pleasure, here is an important note on processing:
- The unpleasant after-effects come from sulfur-containing compounds
- Garlic initially only contains preliminary stages; after the cells have been damaged (squeezed through or squeezed into a pulp with the back of a knife), the actual active ingredient allicin is formed
- When the garlic is heated, several other sulfur-containing compounds are created
- The later evaporate "smells" on the breath and skin, but also do a lot of good:
- They have an antithrombotic effect, prevent arteriosclerosis and colon cancer and have a general antibacterial effect
- Garlic also contains selenium, which is believed to be inadequate for most modern humans
- Selenium has an antioxidant effect and binds heavy metals in the body
- In times when traces of metal in the human body are suspected of promoting / causing all sorts of diseases, give rise to daily consumption of garlic ...
- This shows again how much sense of effect traditional kitchen tools (such as garlic presses) work with:
- You benefit most from the active ingredients when garlic is used crushed
- It should only be cooked briefly in hot dishes
- Sensitive people tolerate garlic better if the germ in the middle of the tuber is removed (even if it is still white)
- Green germs make garlic bitter, which is better to plant
- According to a study by Ohio State University, milk neutralizes 50% of the sulfur compounds in the breath
- Other good anti-stink agents: chlorophyll (e.g. in parsley) and ginger
Garlic is a type of general medicine that you should definitely not withhold from your body. The cultivation is terribly simple, the garlic green hardly tries any smell consequences - nothing stands in the way of a healthier life with garlic.
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