Would trade the magic Fournier for Kanter
Compendium of printing technology
An AM screen (amplitude-modulated screen), also an autotypical screen, is a method for displaying halftones. For this purpose, the area is divided into a fixed number of grid points per unit of length, e.g. B. 60 grid points per centimeter. Different tonal values can be represented by varying the point sizes. The larger the grid dots, the darker the area. The four process colors (CMYK) have to be arranged at different screen angles, since an overlapping of the same angles leads to the annoying moiré effect.
Wear and tear or loss of material on the surface of paints, fabrics or other materials caused by mechanical friction during transport or daily use. In the case of books, varnishing or wrapping of cellophane can improve the abrasion behavior and protect the book cover from signs of wear and tear.
Assessment and optimization of the differences in tone and color values between the proof and the production run using the color guide in the printing press.
Also light tint. Mixing a color with white.
Auxiliaries or additives that are added to printing inks in small quantities in order to achieve or improve certain properties. These can be, for example, waxes for improved rub resistance, drying agents or superplasticizers.
Developed by Adobe Systems, this software is used to create, read, edit, annotate and sign PDF files. The converted files largely retain the display quality of the original and can be corrected and edited with various tools. Adobe Acrobat is available in several versions, e.g. as free Acrobat Reader for reading PDF files and as extended versions Standard, Pro, Pro Extended. The PDF software is now used worldwide and has developed into an important standard in the printing industry.
Adobe Illustrator is a professional graphics and drawing program that is very popular and recognized in the graphics market. It was developed by the software company Adobe Systems and works on the basis of vector graphics, which are made up of lines, curves and surfaces and, unlike pixel graphics, are not displayed point by point. This means that resolution-independent illustrations can be created that can be continuously enlarged and reduced without any loss of quality. There are also numerous creative options such as 3D, transparency or gradient effects.
The image editing program Photoshop from Adobe Systems has been the industry standard in the field of professional image editing since the 1990s. It is part of the Adobe Creative Suite, along with other graphics and design programs, and is available for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows.
In image processing, an aliasing effect is a staircase-shaped arrangement of pixels that actually occurs on sharp edges. This disturbing effect occurs when images are available in too low a resolution and are output in high resolution. If the contrast is very strong, the edges appear hard and irregular. One tries to compensate for this by anti-aliasing by weakening the contrast and inserting pixels with a lower brightness to make the edge softer.
Test print to check tone and color values and to check the quality in coordination with the template. The expected print result is checked directly on the printing machine. In the meantime, different proofing methods that are cheaper and faster are being used more and more frequently.
In sheet-fed printing, the marks that are also printed on the front and side edges are referred to as mooring marks. These marks are used by the printer as a visual check when the sheet is placed for folding or cutting. If the sheet is created precisely with the help of the markings, the end product has the ideal manufacturing quality.
The Swedish manufacturer Anoto has developed a system made of digital pen and paper that generates digital data while writing and forwards it to the appropriate end device via Bluetooth. A pen, which is equipped with a camera, and paper that is printed with the barely visible Anoto grid are used. The camera recognizes the writing movements on the basis of the grid, digitizes the information while writing and saves it on the pen. The data can be transmitted via Bluetooth and are available for further processing.
Since it is not always possible to cut to the millimeter even with the machine cutting process, a certain bleed must be taken into account on print templates whose image or color elements extend to the edge of the page. For this purpose, the template is always created a few millimeters larger, usually it protrudes at least 3 mm over the actual edge. If you don't keep the bleed, so-called flashers can occur. These are white edges where there should actually still be color. The size of the bleed varies from printer to printer.
Antialiasing is a computer-aided process to reduce the staircase effect and to smooth the edges of graphic objects and letters that have too low a resolution. For this, not only the pixels of the graphic but also the surrounding pixels are scanned and matched in color. This means that new color gradients are calculated between the object color and the background color. However, this also causes the objects to lose their edge sharpness.
Total number of copies of a publication produced simultaneously in one printing process that was ordered by the client. A certain allowance must always be included for printing, further processing and finishing processes, which depends on the number of work steps and the degree of difficulty.
The resolution is a measure of the image sharpness and describes the number of picture elements (pixels, lines or points) that can be reproduced separately from one another on the screen or when outputting to film or paper. The resolution is usually given in number per cm or inch.
An elevation is a document that is used to create the book cover and is usually made by the graphic artist who designed the book cover. It contains all the necessary information and dimensions for the book cover or the book cover, e.g. the thickness of the spine or the size of the book cover.
Arranging the pages of a printing form in the order and position in which they are to be printed before they are folded and cut. The imposition scheme results from the format of the print and the planned bookbinding further processing.
In the first printing process, not the entire area is printed. For example, images are not affected by the printing inks underneath.
Autotracing in a function in software programs that enables the automatic tracking of a graphic contour based on changes in contrast. This means that images saved as raster graphics (bitmaps) can be converted relatively easily into vector graphics (line graphics), which can then be edited with programs such as Adobe Streamline or Illustrator.
Describes the property of a printing material in terms of its suitability for printing or the interaction of printing ink and printing material. Impeccable print quality can only be ensured if paper or cardboard is good printable.
Any material that can be printed on. There are printing substrates in all possible variations, colors and structures, from cardboard to a wide variety of paper types and grades to materials such as fabric, metal, ceramics or PVC. They influence the effect of the end product and make it special.
During flocking, a special dispersion adhesive is applied to the printing material by screen printing and then very briefly flocked with cut textile fibers. Offers visual and haptic effects and is suitable for many carrier materials. The concrete materiality of the flocking means that the underlying motif seems to be behind a pane of glass and thus into the distance. Maximum irritation is achieved by flocking on mirror foil.
Printed matter is usually printed on larger sheets of paper and then cut to the correct format in a subsequent step. This processing step is called trimming. It must be ensured that the bleed area is created correctly and extends a few millimeters beyond the final format in order to compensate for tolerances when cutting. Otherwise so-called speed cameras can occur. See also bleed.
Specifies the resistance a paper offers when an ink leaks. If the ink is absorbed too much, the writing will appear blurred and illegible. The resistance can be increased by gluing the paper. However, if the glue is too strong, the paper will not accept the ink.
Digital images must have different resolutions depending on their intended use. The resolution is given in dpi (dots per inch), i.e. in the point density per inch. 72 dpi are sufficient for pure screen resolution on the Internet, around 150 dpi are required for newspaper printing and 300 dpi for offset printing in order to achieve good quality results.
Also art paper. Designates all coated papers with a weight of 70–170 g / m² that can be printed in multiple colors in sheetfed offset and web offset printing. The papers can be coated matt, semi-gloss or glossy. They are well suited for printing pictures, as they do not soak up the printing ink and this makes contours more prominent. From a weight of 170–300 g / m² one speaks of picture printing board.
To save storage space, the amount of data in images can be reduced by data compression. Depending on the method used, a distinction is made between two types of compression: lossless and lossy compression. With lossy compression such as JPEG or GIF, information is saved and image details are eliminated. This results in a loss of quality and increases with each new compression process. ZIP or RLE, on the other hand, are examples of lossless compression of images without loss of information.
Also raster graphics. Designates a file format for graphic files with the file extension "bmp". This is a digitized image that consists of image points (pixels). In black and white bitmap graphics, each bit represents a pixel. In color representations, the color of each individual pixel is defined by a specific number of bits. The reduction or enlargement of bitmap graphics is usually associated with a loss of quality.
Book with blank pages.
Process for the manual or machine production of printing forms for letterpress printing. Lead letters (single letters) are combined to form the complete shape of a page. With manual typesetting with individual letters, the printing form can be dismantled again into its individual parts after printing. A machine set with cast lines must be melted down after use. This technique is based on the printing with movable type invented by Johannes Gutenberg around 1440.
Sample of a printed product for preview, demonstrating the format, size, paper quality, cover material and binding in the intended version. The pages are unprinted.
Also called blind pressure. Classic book finishing. Does not use colors and works on many cover materials. The respective pattern is embossed with engraved brass stamps, which are slightly heated, until the desired darker shade is created. Full-surface embossed images are particularly expressive when the motif runs completely over the front, back and spine of the book. In the case of thermoreactive materials such as artificial leather, the heat changes the surface structure and creates a tone-on-tone and glossy effect.
Register or register inaccuracies in the printing process that can be prevented by overfilling or underfilling.
In the case of sheet assembly, the individual pages of the printed product are put together to form a printed sheet according to the imposition scheme. Since printed pages are now only delivered digitally, this prepress step is no longer carried out manually, but with the help of imposition software, which makes the process significantly more efficient, simpler and more error-free.
Books on Demand are not produced in a set number of copies, but are printed as individual copies when ordered. This process is made possible by digital printing. Another advantage of Books on Demand is that the contents of the books can be compiled individually. Unfortunately, there are not yet sufficient options for high-quality processing of individual or small editions, e.g. through thread stitching at low unit costs.
During paper production, the sheets that can be printed using sheet-fed offset are cut out of paper webs with a width of several meters. The term "short grain" means that a format paper was cut out of the width and across the direction of the paper web. The grain direction (= machine direction or machine direction) is parallel to the short side of the sheet. In contrast, the fibers of the narrow web run parallel to the long side. The direction of travel is not a quality feature and has no technical effects. See also narrow web.
One of the oldest print finishing techniques. Shiny color pigments that reflect the light make the printed product shimmer in metallic tones.
Letterpress process, the first written evidence of which comes from China in 1324. From 1410 on, books were also printed in Europe using woodcut printing boards. In the middle of the 15th century, Johannes Gutenberg invented printing with movable metal letters, which made printing affordable. Today, books are mostly created using offset printing. Gravure printing processes are used for magazines and mail order catalogs. The latest process is digital printing, which works completely without printing templates (printing plates).
Paper that is varnished, patterned or printed in color on one side.
Hand-scooped paper that has been scooped out of a "bucket" (shallow tub) with a sieve. Papers made on cylinder molds can also be called "genuine hand-made paper".
The frayed edge of a handmade paper that was manufactured industrially. Handmade paper from production has two deckle edges, handmade paper has four.
Name for the color blue (cyan) from the CMYK color model.
Cyan, magenta, yellow and black (key), the subtractive primary colors which, as process colors, form the basis for modern four-color printing.
Term for papers made from cellulose that has been bleached without the use of chlorine. Oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are usually used for bleaching.
In hot type, Cicero is a basic measure for one of the medium font sizes. A Cicero has a cone height of 12 Didot points and corresponds to a rounded 4.5 mm. 2 cicero or 1 double cicero corresponds to 24 Didot points etc. A 12 Didot point Antiqua was the standard in the metal type era and shaped reading habits. Many book publishers therefore still type their books in a 12-point Roman font.
Color management is intended to ensure that a template captured with any input device is reproduced as similarly as possible on any output device. A high degree of similarity between the colors in input and output is referred to as color fidelity.
Computer-to-plate exposure (CTP) or digital printing plate exposure (DDB) is an exposure principle in which the printing plates are imaged by the computer directly in the platesetter. In contrast to the conventional indirect film exposure process computer-to-film (CTF), with CTP you save significantly on assembly and material costs and achieve better results in a shorter time.
With this relatively new exposure principle, the printing forms are transferred directly from the computer to a printing machine and illustrated. This eliminates the need for separate exposure of printing plates and makeready times on the machines. However, this is still offset printing and not digital printing, i.e. the data cannot be printed variably.
Print is not dead!
Print is our passion. That is why we are experts when it comes to the technical side of book production and would be happy to advise you personally on all aspects of color, paper and printing processes.FAQ of printing technology
According to DIN 476, paper sizes in Germany are divided into categories A (printed matter, letterhead, etc.) B (loose-leaf binders and folders) C (envelopes to send row A) D (special formats)
The data format defines the structure of data and thus also the data type (file format). Using the extension, the computer software can recognize which data format is involved and how the data is to be interpreted when loading, saving or processing. Data format and file format are often used synonymously, whereby every file format is also a data format, but not every data format is also a file format. Widely used data formats are e.g. E.g .: .jpg, .pdf, .doc, .html, .tif. In the printing sector, the formats EPS (Encapsulated Post Script) and TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) are particularly popular for image files.
Data compression refers to the compression and thus reduction of large files in order to save storage space or to reduce transmission times.A distinction is made between lossless compression methods (e.g. ZIP) and lossy compression methods (e.g. JPEG, GIF).
Printing inks that cover the substrate, although the opacity may vary. In offset printing, one speaks of opaque and slightly opaque printing inks. In offset printing, translucent printing inks are used. Depending on the composition, these colors allow the surface to shine through a little. Absolutely opaque paint application is only possible with screen printing.
Indicates how well a printing ink hides the background. The lower the opacity, the more difficult it is for one color to cover another color. The opposite of opacity is called transparency.
Printing processes in which the information is put on paper directly from the computer without a print template being generated. This means that each sheet can be printed differently. This enables personalized printing, such as advertising tailored to the recipient with a personal address to the addressee. There is also the option of only producing print products when ordering (printing on demand) and compiling them from variable data. The big advantage of digital printing is that it enables small print runs to be produced economically.
With UV digital printing, also known as "digital screen printing", an almost endless spectrum of materials can be printed quickly and inexpensively. For example, flexible and rigid objects made of paper, cardboard, sticker material, foil, canvas, plastic, metal, copper, sheet metal, wood, tiles, glass or mirrors. The process is extremely high quality, durable and suitable for numerous further processing options. This printing process is not actually screen printing, it just achieves similar effects. In digital screen printing, fine nozzles and translucent colors are used to print. This has the advantage that the colors dry quickly and their structures no longer change. In contrast to classic screen printing, fine grids and gradients are possible here. However, the colors are not opaque on dark backgrounds and must therefore be underprinted with opaque white. However, this happens in one operation within the machine. Like other digital printing processes, UV digital printing is ideal for small editions of one copy or more.
A proof or test print is used to simulate the print result in advance and to correct the quality if necessary. Since the vast majority of print templates are produced digitally today, digital proofing systems are used for this. Printing is mostly done on inkjet printers in combination with a color management system (CMS). The color adjustment is controlled via color profiles.
Dispersion is a versatile glue for almost all types of paper. It is slightly more expensive than hotmelt, but it is also more resistant to aging and has better impact behavior. However, this makes it less suitable for coated papers, which peel off quickly due to their good opening behavior. Ideally, dispersion is used for uncoated papers. See also adhesive binding, hotmelt or PUR.
Dispersion varnish is then transferred to the paper using special varnishing units using offset printing. There are matt, semi-matt and glossy dispersion varnishes, which have slightly better gloss effects and tend to yellow less than conventional printing varnishes. Matt and silk-matt dispersion varnishes can, however, also form streaks or scuff marks when subjected to mechanical stress.
Distiller is part of the Adobe Acrobat package. The program was developed by Adobe Systems to convert PostScript files into PDF files. Various tools can be used to optimize the quality and set the printability of the PDF file.
The printing form is the actual printing template with which texts and images are transferred to the printing material by means of color. The printing form decides on the printed and unprinted areas through its design. Depending on the printing process, different types of printing formes are used, such as a positive or negative flat aluminum plate, an engraved cylinder, a rubber mat with raised areas, a stamp or a sieve.
As a graphic representation of the tone value increase, the printing characteristic shows the extent to which a printed point deviates in size from the point on the film or on the plate. Depending on the substrate, printing machine and printing process, there is always a certain dot gain when printing images. This leads to an increased tone value and thus to a deviation of the printed image from the original image. In order to measure this increase in tone value, printing characteristics are created in test prints and shown in a graphic. The values determined make it possible to adjust the tone value of the original so that the printed image corresponds to the original image.
Print control strips or color measuring strips are important tools to ensure the quality of multicolored prints. With the four-color standardized strips, which contain different measuring fields, parameters such as gray balance, accuracy of fit and color density can be monitored in the proofing and printing process. The print control strips are printed on the print sheet as a reference.
Colorless varnish layer that is applied over the entire surface or partially directly to the printed product in the printing machine. It protects against abrasion or damage, seals the printing ink and at the same time enables creative effects. Printing varnishes are available in glossy, matt and semi-gloss. They are the cheapest form of finishing. However, the surface is only partially scratch and abrasion resistant and tends to yellow.
Print proofs are the individual copies that are cut from a print sheet. To make better use of the paper size, e.g. B. with small formats, is often printed for multiple uses. This means that several copies are arranged on the printed sheet, which are separated during trimming.
The various printing processes such as offset printing, screen printing, gravure and letterpress differ in their characteristic properties and variables, such as the available color palette, the recommended printing materials or the costs.
Also called prepress. All operations that are required up to the finished print template, e.g. layout creation, image processing, page and sheet assembly as well as the exposure of films for the production of printing plates.
Post-print processing includes all steps from cutting, folding and stapling the printed sheets to packaging the finished print products ready for dispatch.
Scented varnishes contain microencapsulated scents that have a long-lasting effect. They are applied as the last layer on the surface to be printed, sometimes only partially. If you rub the surface, the microcapsules are destroyed and the fragrances are released. There are fragrances in all variants, e.g. floral fragrances, spices or natural aromas.
Two-sided paper with different properties on the front and back, e.g. different colors and coatings.
This occurs when the printed image is visible from the front to the back of a paper or vice versa. May also be due to the excessive transparency or opacity of the printing material. In general: thin, wood-free papers shine through more than wood-like, thicker ones.
Abbreviation for dots per inch. dpi is the unit of measurement for the resolution in print or for screen reproduction and denotes the point density or the number of print points per inch. The term dissolution is used colloquially.
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is a graphic or image data format developed by Adobe Systems in the PostScript page description language that is suitable for the transmission of image data. An EPS file is based on pixel and / or vector data.
Films such as 3D films, hologram films, metallic films or rainbow films. Above all, applied partially or used for typography, these foils achieve an interesting effect.
Lacquer that contains effect pigments to achieve special printing effects. The particles can vary in color, size and shape and offer many design options. These include metallic lacquers, glitter lacquers or mother-of-pearl lacquers.
Abbreviation for European color scale for offset printing. Standardized color table that defines the printing sequence, saturation and hue for the printing inks yellow, magenta, cyan and black (CMYK) used in four-color printing.
Paper that meets the criteria of the international Forest Stewardship Council (FSC®). The “FSC®-certified paper” seal of approval stands for the worldwide promotion of environmentally and socially compatible forest management with the aim of preserving the forests. Strict criteria serve to avoid uncontrolled deforestation and pollution of the environment. The FSC® has defined ten binding principles and 56 criteria for good forest management, which apply in northern coniferous forests as well as in tropical rainforests.
Device for measuring the lightfastness (resistance to light) of paper, printing inks and other materials.
An important criterion for the standardization of offset printing and quality control. Indicates the optical density of the colored areas on a substrate and is measured with the incident light densitometer.
With the help of foil stamping, company logos or fonts can be applied in color to a book cover.
Color embossing works in a similar way to blind embossing. The only difference: there is a thin colored film between the die and the book, which is transferred to the cover by high pressure and heat.
Color noise refers to incorrect reproduction of image information or incorrect reproduction of colors within a photo. These can, for example, be points of different colors on an actually black surface. The noise is particularly pronounced in underexposed areas of the image. In general, a background noise is always present and cannot be completely avoided. However, it can be weakened by keeping the light sensitivity (ISO) as low as possible.
Papers of the best quality, which have special strength, uniform transparency and very good printability.
Direct letterpress printing process in which the printing areas are raised compared to the non-printing areas. The flexible pressure plates are made of rubber (caoutchouc) or plastic. In contrast to other letterpress printing processes, no shading can be seen in flexographic printing.
With flock printing, a special dispersion adhesive is applied to the printing material and then very briefly flocked with cut textile fibers. Offers visual and haptic effects and is suitable for many carrier materials. The concrete materiality of the flocking means that the underlying motif seems to be behind a pane of glass and thus into the distance. Maximum irritation is achieved by flocking on mirror foil.
Luminous special color that cannot be produced by mixing the process colors. The effect is much higher in screen printing than in offset printing. The double printing of the color also achieves an incredible luminosity. Fluorescent colors shine as daytime luminous colors in the light and as nighttime luminous colors in the dark.
Also cellophane wrapping. Finishing variant by covering printing materials with a transparent film. Numerous optical and haptic effects can be achieved with matt, glossy or embossed plastic films. Also serves to protect against dirt, abrasion and moisture. As a quality feature, all of Brandbook's printed notebooks are laminated with film.
In typography, a font is a complete digital character set of a font for Apple MacOS and / or Microsoft Windows.
In the FM raster method (frequency-modulated or non-periodic raster), the raster points are not arranged at fixed angles, but rather distributed according to mathematical random principles. To do this, the area is divided into equal points. The variation in brightness and color is controlled via the number of points in the area, i.e. via the frequency. This results in finer halftone reproduction and the color space in offset printing is expanded by around seven percent. In addition, the moiré effect is prevented.
Term for color saturation in print. This depends on the layer thickness. In addition to hue and lightness, color saturation is one of the three basic properties of a color.
Environmentally friendly book production
Sustainability is a central part of our company philosophy. Brandbook books are therefore printed on acid- and chlorine-free bleached FSC papers, and we mainly use vegetable oil-based inks and water-based varnishes.On the subject of sustainability
The process colors CMYK (cyan / magenta / yellow / black) are called printed body colors.
Also art or picture printing papers. Paper with a particularly flat surface. This is created by the machine coating with a coating paste made of pigments (e.g. china clay, circles, satin white) and binding agents such as plastic dispersion or starch. This “line” refines the paper and gives it a more closed surface, which guarantees a high level of detail reproduction and better quality when printing. There are matt and glossy coated papers.
Reflects the light and is often used to enhance images or graphic elements.
Reflects the light and is often used to enhance images or graphic elements.
The golden ratio is a specific ratio of two numbers or sizes that is seen in art, architecture and typography as the ideal proportion or as the law of beauty for aesthetics and harmony. The Greeks discovered this ideal division ratio, which can also be found in the proportions of the human body. The type area can also be divided according to the golden ratio, so that the page appears particularly harmonious to the viewer.
Applying gold leaf to the cut edges of the book block. To do this, the book block is first sanded and polished. A red color cut is often used for better luminosity. This is covered with an adhesive liquid made from diluted egg white and carefully covered with gold leaf. After drying, the gold cut is polished to a high gloss with a special tool (smooth tooth made of agate). In the past it was often used in Bibles and hymn books. Even today it can be used to decorate notebooks, for example.
Also gradient. Gradual, smooth transition from one color to another.
Weight of paper in grams per square meter. Also called weight per unit area. The grammages of paper range from seven to approx. 225 g / m². Cardboard weighs 150 to 600 g / m². Cardboard is available with grammages from 225 g / m². In comparison, normal office printer paper is 80 g / m². Brandbook book blocks are usually made from 90 g / m² paper.
Area of the paper surface that cannot be printed on in sheet-fed printing. The individual printed sheets are picked up by the printing machine's gripper and guided through the machine. No paint can be applied in this area.
The HKS color fan deck comprises 120 full tone colors with a total of 3,520 colors for art print and natural papers. The intention behind this is the reproducibility and naming of color nuances. HKS is a trademark and the abbreviation for the printing and artist ink manufacturer Hostmann-Steinberg Druckfarben, Kast + Ehinger Druckfarben and H. Schmincke & Co.
Paper that is scooped out of the "vat" sheet by sheet from paper pulp with a scoop frame. A common paper-making process until the early 19th century. Today only used for a few special papers.
A booklet consists of sheets of paper stapled through the spine with wire or thread, with or without a cover. Originally only unprinted writing or drawing books were referred to, but today the term also includes printed publications such as magazines with a small volume.
Also called embossing. With this type of embossing, an embossing die is heated and pressed onto a film, which is released by the heat and transferred to the printing material. Foils are available in various shades of gold and silver, various colors, as well as in matt and glossy versions, which, in conjunction with the third dimension, give off an even stronger optical effect. Foil embossing works on various cover materials as well as on printed covers.
With letterpress printing, the raised parts of the printing form are colored and pressed against the printing material. The disadvantage is that the printed image looks different every time. However, this makes the process interesting for many designers because it creates a unique print image.
More precisely, "wood pulp-free" paper. Wood-free papers are made from at least 95% pure cellulose and without any other wood components. One also speaks of "fine papers". Due to the lack of lignin contained in the wood resin, cellulose cannot yellow over time.
To be more precise, “wood pulp-containing” paper. Consists of more than five percent lignified fibers, e.g. B. in the form of wood pulp. Newsprint consists of 90% wood pulp. Papers containing wood tend to yellow.
Lacquer that is used to create matt-gloss effects. For this purpose, the hybrid effect lacquer is printed on the printing material at the point where the motif should appear matt. Then UV high-gloss varnish is applied over the entire surface, which sinks into the effect varnish and creates the matt effect. See also matt-gloss effects.
Mirror, shine and holo
In addition to lacquers, special foils can be used for glossy surfaces that surprise with metallic, hologram or mirror effects. A book can look like a fashion accessory.To the effects
Uncoated, mostly wood-containing paper with fillers and with a smooth surface created by heavy calendering. Particularly suitable for very finely rastered image templates.
The imprimatur (lat. "It will be printed") is the permission to print. It is issued either after proofreading the proofs or in the proof phase after setting up the printing press. Historically, the imprimatur is the permission to print theological works by a Catholic bishop.
Also reverse pressure. Part of the colored area is left out, e.g. to achieve white writing.
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